Spreading And Transgenesis: A Genetic Analysis

It is humans instinct to want to have and create the best of everything. With this drive and scientific knowledge we are able to manipulate a species genetics through several methods. The two methods I will be exploring the process of and the pro’s and con’s is ‘selective breading’ and ‘transgenesis’.

Transgenesis is a form of genetic manipulation where an exogenous gene is introduced into a living organism that is not of the same species as the exogenous gene. This gene will then also be present in the offspring of that organism. An example of this is within corn. The corn is genetically modified to produce its own ‘natural’ pesticide, this is known as ‘BT corn’. The problem with natural corn was that the silk worms liked
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DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is “a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information”. This information codes for the production of all the proteins an organism will ever need. DNA or a particular gene is extracted through the use of restriction enzymes, for the Bt corn its the gene which codes for Bacillus thirungiensis. Restriction enzymes are able to pin point specific nucleotides long a stand on DNA and like enzymes, are all unique and pair to a specific code/ base pair sequence. This allow scientist to have some control and choice as to what part of DNA (or specific gene) is selected for extraction. The restriction enzymes work to extract DNA by cutting nucleotides at the set points along a chromosome according to that restrictions enzymes instructions. An enzyme known as ligase is then used to attach the other DNA fragment together again once the wanted section of DNA has been extracted. There is only a limited amount of information that humans understand about this part of transgenesis which can limit the extent to which we can modify other …show more content…
This stage is where we insert the new modified Bt gene into a single corn plant cell. There are a few methods for this process such as using a gene gun or agrobacterium. The gene gun (micro-projectile bombardment method) is basically where the Bt gene is loaded into a high pressure helium powered gun and fired at the plant cell. This gene will not push through the membrane of the plant cell unless it is connected to very small gold or tungsten particles which will push through the cell membrane and takes the Bt gene in with it. Because corn is a plant, it’s cells are totipotent meaning any single cell form the plant can from a complete new cloned plant. Once the Bt gene is in ta corn plant cell, it becomes part of the corn;s DNA and when the cell divides, all the cells will have the Bt gene.The other method know as agrobacterium tumefaciens is where a bacteria infects the corn cells with a piece of it’s own DNA which results in tumours. This process itself has been genetical modified to switch the tumours into the desired gene for

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