Production Based Biomass : A Plant Based Material Composed Of Lignin, Cellulose, And Cellulose

1428 Words Dec 26th, 2016 6 Pages
Lignocellulosic-based biomass
Unlike starch, lignocellulosic biomass is a plant-based material composed of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. This class of biomass includes wood and fibrous materials from organic sources, agricultural wastes, organic municipal wastes, and organic industrial wastes [18]. Agricultural wastes contribute as the major lignocellulosic resources investigated for biofuel production. Among them are oil palm biomass [19,20], corn stalk [21], rice straw [22], wheat straw [23–25], and sugarcane baggase [26]. Other lignocellulosic biomass such as king grass [27], switch grass [28,29], and phragmites [29] known as dedicated energy crops have been also tested for butanol production. On average, this lignocellulosic biomass comprises 38–50% of cellulose, 23–32% of hemicellulose, and 15–25% of lignin [30]. Cellulose is physically associated with hemicellulose and physically and chemically associated with lignin [31]. Basically, the individual cellulose molecules are linked together to form elementary microfibrils and are aggregated by intermolecular hydrogen bonding into larger subunits called fibrils. The microfibrils contain alternating phases of highly ordered (crystalline) and randomly oriented (amorphous) cellulose embedded in a matrix of hemicellulose [32]. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions are covered in an amorphous layer of lignin [33]. The access of cellulase enzymes to cellulose becomes difficult, because of presence of lignin and…

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