Plague In Zambia Case Study

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From historical and epidemiological perspectives search, three different zones harbour plague endemic foci in Zambia. These are:- Eastern zone, which includes Luangwa valley, where outbreaks occurred in Tembwe village in Chama district, Mukomba village in Lundazi district and Chief Nyanje in Sinda district; the Southern zone, which includes Kabulamwanda and surrounding villages in Namwala district and Western zone which includes Chitokoloki in Balovale (Zambezi district) in Zambezi plain (Fig 1, Table 2).

3.1. Eastern zone
3.1.1. Luangwa and Lundazi outbreaks
According to available information, the first reported plague outbreak in Zambia (then Northern Rhodesia) was recorded in this area in 1917, and it involved 96 cases and 93 deaths (Case Fatality (CF) =96.8%). The outbreak occurred at Tembwe virizi village (11o20 'S, 32o57 'E) in the North of the Luangwa valley in Chama district (Fig 1). This was followed by another outbreak in 1918, which reportedly involved 59 cases and 57 deaths (CF=96.6%). Of these cases, 33 (55.5%) and 26 (44.1%) were females and males respectively. Concurrently, during the plague outbreak, there was epizootic among local house rats (Rattus rattus) and increase in flea population,
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It was generally believed that an improved transport system facilitated the spread of plague disease from endemic foci in South Africa to plague free areas in Zambia through cargo transported by train (Molefi, 2001). Motor transport and labour migration were most likely responsible for plague introduction into the area as people from the area were employed as casual workers in gold mines and farms. The 1937 outbreak involved 9 reported cases. More outbreaks were reported in the same area in February 1940, October 1942 and November 1942 and involved 4, 6 and 7 reported cases respectively (Davis,

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