Theoretically, energy in every isolated system will always be conserved so for every action there will be a reaction to stabilise the system (Ellert, G, n.d.). Such a term does also appear in the physics of fluids motion. Fluids are things that can flow such as gas, water or oil. In fluid motion physics there are two theories that are involved with the law of conservation and they are Bernoulli’s law and continuity equation.

Bernoulli’s law is derived from the energy conservation between “kinetic energy and static energy associated with pressure” of an ideal fluid (Encyclopaedia Britannica, n.d.). An ideal fluid is a fluid with a steady flow, incompressible, does not generate heat and has no angular momentum (Brown, S n.d).

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The Bernoulli’s law suggests that as the pressure will decrease as the velocity increases in a horizontal pipe (PHYS101 Lab Manual, p22, 2017). The continuity equation also suggests similar theory that the velocity of the fluid will increases as the diameter decreases of a pipe according to PHYS101 Lab Manual, p22, 2017. Though, both equations suggestion are very similar, they are however not the same and the aim of this experiment is to verify both equations and their physical limitation.

There are two separated parts in this experiment but they both will be tested out the speed of fluid flow using both equations. First part is an observing and recording of fluid flowing out from a test tube and in second part a Venturi apparatus will be used. In both cases Bernoulli’s equation can be simplified to calculate the velocity of fluid according to experimental conditions.

In the first part of experiment, the pressure is the same for both ends which allow us to remove the pressure and gives: ρgh₁ + ½ρv₁² = ρgh₂ + ½ρv₂²

This can be simplified further by assuming that the velocity at the surface is 0 as it is moving very slowly and the height of the bottom is 0. Using this assumption gives ρgh₁ = ½ρv₂²

Since it is the same fluid so the density, ρ, is the same which they can be cancelled out to give ghsurface = ½