Philosophical Ethics Study Guide Essay examples

1270 Words Oct 24th, 2014 6 Pages
Philosophical Ethics: Part A

1. Name and briefly describe the four main aspects of the AU decision-making process.

i. Scope → Includes all those affected by the act, either directly or indirectly ii. Duration → Considers the length of time of each effect iii. Intensity → Considers the force or strength of each resulting experience iv. Probability → Considers how likely each effect might be, given that we don’t know ahead of time which of the many possible effects will actually occur.

2. Define what act utilitarianism is (your definition should also include a brief description of what utility means vs. disutility).

i. Act Unitarianism → States that the morally right act in any given situation is the act that would produce
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Even when a person is depressed, that persons memories of happiness and being happy can keep themselves going, whereas animals don’t ever feel the pleasures we as humans get to feel everyday.

15. What is the paradox of competition? Against which ethical theory does this paradox comprise a critique?

i. Paradox of Competition → Refers to the idea that the desire to win is such a strong motivator, it keeps us from becoming lazy people, but as when winning becomes the number 1, and only priority, you are unable to enjoy the competition and instead you get angry and frustrated, forgetting the number one objective of playing in competitions anyway, and that is to have fun.

16. (16) Read the torture case (Case 3, starting on p. 127). Reply to thought question #5.

i. I do not agree with any reasoning behind using the torture lite, regardless of the amount of utility that is produced it is still considered a form of torture, and therefore no hesitation should occur when declining the use of any form of torture lite.

17. What is the collapse objection? Which moral theory is typically faced with this objection?

i. Collapse Objection → The objection that if rule utilitarian (RU) fine-tunes its rules to the point of providing a moral rule for every situation, then it effectively turns into act utilitarianism (AU). Fine-tuning the rules, to make rule following in RU

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