Persian War Outline

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How the war started/background
After the war

Persian/Greco-Persian Wars - 492-449 BC
Between Greece and Persia
Most intense fighting - 490-479 BC
Persia 2 invasions against Greece
Darius ruled Persia 522-486 BC
Expanding rapidly, especially into Europe, Ionia, Thrace, Macedonia
Wanted to take over Greece next (Athens)
Ionia - rebelled against Persian satrap 500-494 BC known as Ionian Rebellion
Satrap - provincial governor in ancient Persia
Athens and Eretria sent small reinforcements to help
Darius saw this as the start to take over Greece 492
Marathon 490
Persian Army
Datis - leader of Persian army (Darius did not lead war in person)
Artaphernes - second in command, probably lead
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480 BC - King Xerxes brings in army to attack Greece at Thermopylae
Greeks send in several thousand warriors to defend
King Leonidas of Sparta tried to stop the Persians but failed - retreated
An alternative path eventually was figured out - Persians came in from behind
Leonidas tries to stop them again, fails, and is killed
Artemision - Persian v Greek naval battle, when the Greeks heard about Leonidas’ death, they retreated to Salamis (nothing came of this battle) - Persia loses bunch of ships due to storm
Persia burns Athens down, but it was already evacuated

Persian ships
Ariabignes (Darius son) commands ships along with Cybernis, Artemisia, Prexaspes, Megabazus, Achaimenes
Persians arguably better fighters on the sea, but had variety of languages caused them to have terrible communication
Herodotus made list of ships, but these are thought to be fake
500-1,000 Persian ships
Greek ships
Commanded by Eurybiades
Themistocles/Adeimantus were others
Themistocles - very experienced in naval
Around 400 ships - Persians had many more ships
Some ships from Ionia joined the Greeks
Persians tried to surprise attack at night - not too successful, loud sounds made by the rowing
Greeks hold position, Persians move in

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