Pennsylvania Association For Retarded Children (PARC) V. The Ppac Case

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1. What were the two main findings in the PARC Case (1971)?
The case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania consists in a sue against a state law which denied access to education to children with disabilities who have not reached the 5 year old mental developmental. The two main findings in this case are the right of students with mental retardation to receive free public education and, as long as possible, include this kind of students in a regular classroom rather than an isolated special class.

2. Identify by exceptionality the students who were eligible for Exceptional Student Education under the provisions of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (94-142) passed in 1975?
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Do the parents have to pay for the education if their disabled child attends a public school?
One of the provisions of IDEA (1990) is assure the right to a free and appropriate education in public schools to children with disabilities between ages of three to twenty-one.
4. Why is a regular education teacher included in the IEP (Individual Education Plan) team?
The concept of inclusion intent to place students with disabilities in regular classrooms rather than isolated them in special education classes. The inclusion suggestion required that regular education teachers meet the needs of students with disabilities in order to provide an individualized education. Regular teachers are challenge to meet the academic needs of students with disabilities and provide special education services, therefore the importance of take part in the IEP team.

5. Define the term, “appropriate education.”
According with IDEA (1990), a free, appropriate education required an individualized education program (IEP) designed to provide "educational benefit" for a person with disabilities and consistent with the individual needs. This benefit includes related services and provisions involving evaluation, placement, and procedural
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7. What did the U.S. Supreme Court decide in the Rowley Case?
In the case of Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School v. Rowley, the court decided that a child is not entitled to a public education unless he or she can benefit from it (Essex, 2016). In a decision 6–3, the Supreme Court reversed the Second Circuit’s decision. Justice William Rehnquist argued that “the intent of the Act (Education for All Handicapped Children Act) was more to open the door of public education to handicapped children on appropriate terms than to guarantee any particular level of education once inside.”

8. What did the U.S. Supreme Court decide the school had to provide in the Tatro Case?
The US Supreme Court decided in the Irving Independent School District v. Tatro case, that the school must provide the supportive service need by students with disabilities to permit them attend school. These relate services included simple medical procedures as long as such procedures do not require complex mastery and are considered indispensable for the child to benefit from appropriate special education

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