The social and emotional effects in middle childhood can be devastating. Erikson contends that a 10 year old is in the fourth stage of development (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2010). He terms this stage as industry verses inferiority where encouragement and nurturance provides social and emotional stability. From this the child develops a sense of pride through their abilities and in having a sense of accomplishment; they are confident (Cherry, 2013).
The authoritarian parent can produce a profound negative effect on the social and emotional development. According to Cherry (2013), this child may follow rules well but has no sense of autonomy. They mistake love as being a residual effect from success through obedience. Aggressive behavior may be displayed outside of the home environment and the child may present a fearful disposition. Social interactions may be hampered as a sense of shyness around others may be present; self esteem is lowered (Cherry, 2013).
The authoritative parenting style may be described as providing some degree of control, but not overbearing. In conjunction, these parents are nurturing as they are responsive to the needs of their