The Theme Of Love In Toni Morrison's Beloved

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According to the preceding verse, the sūgrā (those who have a Guru) desire nothing else but the Name of the Lord as a means to attain closeness of the Lord. This verse stresses on the futility and uselessness of invocation of the Name of the Lord without intense love.

The two most essential components in the pursuit of attaining the closeness of the Beloved, according to this verse, are prem-pīḍā and lāy, without which, remembrance or invocation of the Lord’s Name would be futile.

Prem means ‘love’, ‘affection’, ‘liking’, ‘attachment’. Pīḍā means ‘pain’, ‘agony’, ‘pang’, ‘ache’. Prem pīḍā therefore refers to ‘agonizing sensation of love’, ‘throbbing feeling of love’ or very simply put, ‘pangs of love’. In a state of separation, lovers
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Dhikr performed with such love and yearning proves meaningful and may yield the desired outcome.

Undoubtedly, the Ginans underscore the importance of love and longing on the path of spiritual search, not to dissuade the seeker on this path from engaging in dhikr on the pretext of lack of love on his part, but rather it is to encourage him to cultivate love, as he unfailingly engages in dhikr. Paradoxical as this may sound, the reality is that the relationship between love and dhikr is, in a sense, symbiotic – i.e. love for the Beloved serves as an impetus to engage in dhikr and dhikr, on the other hand, engenders and promotes love for the Beloved!

Hence, the Ginans provide guidance to the faithful on ways to strengthen their relationship with the Beloved – dhikr being one of the most important methods recommended. One of the other approaches proposed by the Ginans is unwavering contemplation and internalization of the knowledge of one’s current state of separation from the Beloved. Such enduring reflection and assimilation of this knowledge ignites the flame of love within the heart. It is beyond the scope of this work to list details of guidance given by Ginans in this regard. If a believer were to adhere to the teachings contained in the Ginans, then surely love for the Beloved will spring in his

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