Urinary System Analysis

The urinary system functions to removes wastes from the blood and the kidney is known for filtration and absorbing water. The urinary system consists of a renal corpuscle (glomerulus and bowman’s capsule), a proximal tubule, a loop of Henle, and a distal tubule.
The kidney filters about 180 liters and gets rid of about 1.5 liters as urine. Renal clearance is a measurement that analyzes the activity and efficiency of the kidney; it is the volume of plasma need for the kidney to complete remove a substance in a minute.
Renal plasma flow is around 625 ml of plasma. Some of the fluid leaves the kidney as urine, but there are only two ways for a substance to end up in the urine. It is filtered at the glomerulus and then not reabsorbed from the
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There are a few ways mechanisms or methods that have been used to explain PAH secretion.
One method states that the sodium potassium pump located on the peritubular capillaries creates a gradient of sodium outside, which is used by the sodium/ decarboxylase symporter where 3 Na ion and a DC both come in to the cell. The concertation of decarboxylase in the cell increases, which fuels the Decarboxylase and PAH pump. The sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter, moves a DC out to decreases the concentration and a PAH into the interstitium. From the interstitium there is an Anti-porter that moves PAH into the tubule (secreting it) and allows another molecule into the interstitium. Another mechanism has the same approach, but from the interstitium to the tubular cells is slightly different. Sodium/Potassium pumps are found on these cells and create a gradient for sodium to be used by the sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter (NaDC3), it transports 3 sodium ions back into the cell and α-Ketoglutaric acid into the tubular cells (refer to image 1). Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) transport α-Ketoglutaric acid back out of the tubular cell, while moving PAH inside. Once PAH is inside multi-drug resistance protein 2 secretes PAH into the tubular fluid. Burckhardt, Bahn, and Wolff suggest that there are two other method of secreting PAH into the fluid, but their names have not been

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