Online Learning And Cognitive Development

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The last few decades has seen a rapid development in internet and electronic industry. At the same time, online learning, as a form of distance education, “imposes itself strongly and becomes a core concern of human thought and modern life.” (Saleem, 2016, p.53). As an untraditional method of education, online learning is very different from traditional ones. Those different make the outcome of online learning hard to be evaluated and examined. However, due to its low cost and high flexibility, online learning can help people achieve lifelong learning and may have a profound influence in the development of intellectual capital. There is a need to determine the effect of online learning as a form of education to see how it works,
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According to the theory of Cognitive development (Piaget, 1971), the four stages are: “the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational period”. His theory stated that, normal children will reach their final stage at the age of twelve to fifteen. However, Arlin (1975), contented that there are five stages of cognitive development and divided the final stage of Piaget, the formal operational period, into two stages—the problem-solving stage and the problem-finding stage. For adults, which is the main studying object in this research, their learning behaviors are at the fourth and fifth stage. Adults learn in a very different way than children. Adults are more experienced, more self-regulating and have a stronger subjective attitude. Knowles (1984) contrasted the learning behavior between adults and children and concluded 5 assumptions of adult learners: Self-concept, Adult Learner Experience, Readiness to Learn, Orientation to Learning and Motivation to Learn. Furthermore, he suggested 4 principles that are applied to adult learning:
1. Adults need to plan and evaluate for their
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If a student use online learning well, he will receive the same learning outcome as traditional university.

Does the culture background of Chinese online learners pose them a barrier in learning?
If a Chinese online learner has a poor English level and has little knowledge about foreign culture, this kind of culture barrier will degrade his learning outcome.

Research Methods
The methods of this research are online questionnaire, observation of online learning platforms and secondhand research. Questionnaire will be used to examine the characters of online learners and investigate how culture different influence their learning. Direct observation of online learning platforms will help determining the culture different in learning material. The design of questionnaire will follow the five assumptions, four principles and six learning styles mentioned above. The questions will be in Chinese when finally presented. For the number of response, 50 will be the minima when there is no maxim limit. Some questionnaire websites will help deliver

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