Measles And Rubella

1492 Words 6 Pages
Measles or rubella, with the scientific name of Morbillivirus measles virus is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory system. The virus is spread by contact with an infected persons saliva or mucus (Healthline, 2015). A doctor in the 9th century published the first report of measles virus (CDC, 2014). Measles is the cause of 100, 000 fatalities each year worldwide, mainly affecting children (Mayo Clinic, 2015). With a long existence and immense death rates, measles is one of the world’s most commonly dangerous viruses.
Symptoms of measles includes fever, runny nose, conjunctivitis and red blotchy skin rash the spreads over the body, although these symptoms don’t occur until approximately one and a half weeks after infection
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Paramyxoviruses are spherical shaped enveloped particles containing a non-segmented negative strand RNA genome.As seen in figure 1 on the right, the measles virus contains two glycoprotein spikes. These spikes play a very important role in the pathogenesis of the measles virus. The first is the fusion protein, seen as F on the diagram, is responsible for the fusion of the virus to the membrane of the host cell. The haemagglutinin, H, protein binds the virus to the cell (microbeonline, 2015).
The virus is transmitted by saliva or an airborne route. Firstly the virus attaches to the cell, for measles the cell that the virus attaches to is the epithelial cell in the upper respiratory tract (Infection Landscapes, 2011). The measles virus then penetrates the cells membrane and injects the nucleic acid RNA into the cell. The host cell engulfs the virus by a process known as Endocytosis, as the cell responds to foreign particle. The new viral nucleic acids are packaged into the viral particles and are then released from the cell (Schmoop,
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Vaccines where created to develop an immunity to the viral infection by helping to imitate the virus (Department of Health, 2011). The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine was developed from weakened forms of the three viruses. The MMR vaccine prepares the human body for immune response. This way your body will respond and remember the virus, it prepares your immune system for the next time the person becomes infected by the same virus as your body will recognize the virus and respond the same way (Bupa, 2015).
The MMR vaccine is currently the most affective strategy to this date. It prevents measles from one dose by 93% and by two doses becomes 97% affective (CDC, 2015). However people still choose to not vaccinate themselves or their children due to claims that it causes autism, however there is no scientific evidence behind this statement (CE,

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