This patient is taking acetaminophen with hydrocodone in order to relief the pain caused by the osteoarthritis. Hydrocodone is an opioid that acts on the central nervous system and smooth muscle and help with the pain relief in the joints. In contrast analgesic effect of acetaminophen implies the peripheral nerves system. ( NIH,2015). Both components act in reducing the patient’s moderate to severe pain involving hands and knees.
3. The patient in this case study is taking omeprazole for a presumably gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD). Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor producing a decrease in the gastric acid secretion, therefore it is used as first treatment option in the gastrointestinal reflux disease( May and Rao,2014)
4. It would be reasonable to suspect that constipation in this patient’s case is induced by the aosteoarthritis therapy and anticholinergic effect of loratadine used for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Moreover, constipation is also association with diabetes mellitus type II with neuropathy and the signs of dehydration (Fabel and Shealy,2014).Docusate is a stool softener and it is used by this patient for the treatment of constipation, condition highlighted in her past medical