Hypothesis Of Income Inequality
In economics, a Kuznets curve graphs the hypothesis that as an economy develops, market forces first increase and then decrease economic inequality. The hypothesis was first advanced by economist Simon Kuznets in the 1950s and '60s.
One explanation of such a progression suggests that early in development, investment opportunities for those who have money multiply, while an influx of cheap rural labour to the cities holds down wages. Whereas in mature economies, human capital accrual (an estimate of cost that has been incurred but not yet paid) takes the place of physical capital accrual as the main source of growth; and inequality slows growth by lowering education …show more content…
A natural specification in panel data with a very general form can be hypothesized as:
Giniit 0 1Yit 2Yit i t uit , i=1,……, N; t=1,….,T, where, Yit denotes ln(MPCE) andi andt are the state and time specific unobserved heterogeneity effects, respectively; and uit is the disturbance term.
Understanding the Gini coefficient :-
The Gini index or Gini coefficient is a statistical measure of distribution developed by the Italian statistician Corrado Gini in 1912. It is often used as a gauge of economic inequality, measuring income distribution or, less commonly, wealth distribution among a population. The coefficient ranges from 0 (or 0%) to 1 (or 100%), with 0 representing perfect equality and 1 representing perfect inequality. Values over 1 are theoretically possible due to negative income or wealth.
A country in which every resident has the same income would have an income Gini coefficient of 0. A country in one resident earned all the income, while everyone else earned nothing, would have an income Gini coefficient of 1.
About India …show more content…
The fact that relative income equality has also remained largely stable makes this growth all the more remarkable. India has clearly shown that contrary to Kuznets’ Inverted-U Hypothesis, a nation can experience steady economic growth, while also maintaining stable income equality.
This has been due to a variety of factors, although India’s strong commitment to democracy and pro-poor / pro-worker policies should be noted. The nascent software and related services sector has made a steadily increasing contribution to overall economic growth, however this contribution remains relatively small. Because India has reformed under a gradualist approach, a burgeoning technology sector has been able to emerge while the greater Indian population has not lost pre-existing benefits.
However, the more relevant results will be measured by how well India uses this growth in the years and decades to come. This paper details the multitude of challenges confronting India, both internal and external. These challenges will require India to address the growing potential for real disparity between those who have benefited and those who have been left behind. The software and services sector shows considerable economic potential, but also that the opportunities are available to a distinct