Jean Piaget's Four Stages Of Intellectual Development
Burrhus Frederic Skinner operant conditioning is based on, the actions that create a change in the surrounding environment (Robins, et al 2011). Skinner attempted to recognize the processes that create operant behavior occur more or less frequent (Robins, et al 2011). He developed the term operant conditioning. He used reinforcements given after a desired response to change behavior (Robins, et al 2011). Skinner identified three types of potential response or operant behavior: neutral operant, reinforces and punishers. Neutral operants do not increase or decrease the probability of a behavior and are environmental responses (Robins, et al 2011). Reinforcers can be either positive or negative and increase the probability of recurring behavior (Robins, et al 2011). Punishers weaken behavior and decrease the likelihood of reoccurring behavior (Robins, et al 2011). Skinner found out that behavior is strengthened by its consequence and the consequent acts as a reinforcer for the behavior (Robins, et al …show more content…
Her best friend Daisy has been moved to another school. Rather than, figuring out a solution, Julie begins to cope with her feelings by becoming isolated, depressed and acting out unusual behavior. This demonstrates that her affective processes, that regulates emotional state and emotional reaction is frail. Another example that Julies has a weak sense of self-efficacy is the possibility of her being bullied in school. Julie could possibly have an attraction towards girls. The school counselor mentioned that, Julie was found in the girl’s restroom crying about the messages she received through social media calling her derogatory names, used to shame lesbian youth. Someone with a strong sense of self-efficacy has secure cognitive processes. Cognitive processes involve people’s thinking method in the acquisition, organization and use of information (Bandura, 1994). Julie has received some threatening messages about her sexual orientation. Rather than informing a member of the school faculty to stop the bullying, she does not do anything. A person with a high sense of efficacy can visualize success that provides a positive guide for performance.
4. Erickson’s eight stages of development theory proposed that the ego qualities develop as the result of the interaction between the potentialities of an individual and the sanctions of the social environment (Constantinople, 1969). The interaction