3.0 The Science Of Climate Change

3.0 - The Science of Climate Change

3.1 – What is Climate Change?

The earths climate is changing and forever will be due to neurogenic and anthropogenic changes. Climate change is just a cycle, that will occur from neurogenic changes however humans are dramatically increasing this cycle warming the atmosphere and ocean (IPCC, 2013). Currently greenhouse gasses: carbon dioxide(CO2), methane(CH4) and nitrous oxide(N20) have been released in large amounts into the atmosphere, warming planet earth (NASA, 2016). These gases deplete the ozone layer by releasing chlorine and bromine atoms into the stratosphere, which destroy ozone molecules causing holes in the Ozone layer (NOAA, 2016). These gasses are largely caused from burning fossil fuels
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Nitrogen is used in fertilizers to help boost the rate plants grow at and is required for genetic materials; DNA, RNA and amino acids (Crash Course Ecology, 2012). Some of the transformations occurring in the global nitrogen cycle parallel those in the carbon cycle. Phosphorus is stored primarily in soil and is an essential component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (University of Minnesota, 2016). Figure 1.3 – The Nitrogen Cycle – (University of Minnesota, 2016) Figure 1.4 – The Phosphorous Cycle – (Reef Keeping Magazine, 2008)

3.3.3 – Hydrologic Cycle
The water cycle is essential for life on Earth as it has been occurring for billions of years. Water is vital to sustain all life on earth as it is intimately linked with energy exchanges in the atmosphere, ocean and land (NASA, 2016) The ocean is the most vital part to sustaining life on earth as “the ocean holds 97% of the total water on the planet; 78% of global precipitation occurs over the ocean, and it is the source of 86% of global evaporation” (NASA, 2016). This provides the world with water and if the water cycle was to be altered, many organisms on earth would face
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Since 1910 Australia’s average temperatures have increaser by 0.9 degrees Celsius (Commonwealth of Australia, 2016). Changes over the 20th century include increases in global average air and ocean temperature, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global sea levels. Paleo sea level records from warm periods during the last 3 million years indicate that global mean sea level has exceeded 5 m above present when global mean temperature was up to 2°C warmer than pre-industrial. (IPCC, 2016) There are also more intense and more frequent extreme weather event occurring today. Anthropogenic climate change is no longer just a hypothesis according to the IPCC, as it is occurring at a much faster rate than ever before. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated in its 2013 report that it is “extremely likely human activity has been the main global warming influence since the mid-20th

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