Paleolithic Civilization

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The Paleolithic times in which man is said to have come from were characterized by a hunting-gathering culture. With time man progressed into an egalitarian culture characterized by farming and equality; at least to some degree. Somewhere along the timeline however, man mastered the art of farming, which led to food surplus; the main element in the development of ancient civilizations. One of the characteristics of these societies was the centralization of political authority. What justification for the rule of that individual? My argument is that the existence of the political institutions in these civilizations would not be possible without the recognition from the lower classes as well as justification from religious institutions. …show more content…
These towns and villages were agriculture based and relied on the Nile for irrigation as well as its silt deposits which fertilized the soil. The credit for the foundation of this civilization goes to a man called Menes (c. 3100-3098 BCE) (King Menes) who united the lands of Lower and Upper Egypt and created the first Egyptian dynasty. The king (or queen) (Hatshepsut, c. 1458 BC) in ancient Egypt or pharaoh (meaning great house) as they would come to be called had absolute power and authority (although in later years bureaucracy developed). The ancient Egyptian religion was a polytheistic one with gods that represented heavenly bodies and natural forces. Two of the most important natural forces to the Egyptians were the Nile (Hymn to the Nile, c. 2100 BCE) and the sun referred to as Atum (human form) and Re (falcon head, human …show more content…
Archaeological evidence has shown that Indian civilization takes its roots in the Indus River Valley near modern day Pakistan. Excavations in that area show that a number of agriculture based communities existed there. This early civilization is referred to by Historians as Harappan Civilization. Somewhere during the course of their history however the Harappans virtually disappeared leaving Historians baffled.
The next group of people to inhabit that area were an Indo-European group called the Aryans. They were a pastoral-nomadic group of people who came to inhabit the land where the Harappin lived, they gave up their pastoral ways and adopted agricultural practices. Initially, the Aryans were divided into groups each with a chieftain or raja. Polytheistic in nature the rajas claimed to be representatives of the gods, however they were not viewed as gods themselves (Mahabharata c. 4th century CE). His power lay in his ability to actually defend his

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