Protein Synthesis Research Paper

Transfer RNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a crucial component in Protein Synthesis. It serves as an adaptor molecule between the codon, the three nucleic acids and the amino acid after which a specific protein will be synthesized. It is the intermediate in Protein Synthesis which interprets the genetic code. Without tRNA, translation in prokaryotes or eukaryotes could not take place. Common Features of tRNA Molecule
Each amino acid has at least one tRNA molecule. Therefore, these tRNA molecules have a common design as they have to all have the ability to interact with the ribosomes, mRNAs and protein factors that take part in Protein Synthesis. Due to the fact they all interact with these participants of Translation they therefore need to act the
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The D arm contains dihydrouridine and the anticodon loop contains the anticodon that matches to the codon sequence of the mRNA.
Codon-Anticodon Interaction

The anticodon which is found in the centre of one of the arms of tRNA is a crucial site in protein synthesis. The three nucleotide sequence of the anticodon is complementary to the codon sequence of mRNA in the ribosome. The specificity of the base pairing and the appropriate tRNA molecule is essential for the amino acid to be inserted into the increasing polypeptide chain.
There are 64 possible codons whereas there are not the same corresponding amount of tRNA molecules (30 cytoplasmic tRNA and 22 mitochondrial tRNA.) The ability of all 64 codons to be interpreted is due to Wobble Hypothesis of Base Pairing. This hypothesis is seen to take on a relaxed state when it comes to the base pairing rules of the third position in the codon-anticodon recognition. The first two positions follow the normal base pairing rules of A-U and G-C however the third position ‘wobbles’ where the base pairing of G-U is allowed to form.

Activation of Amino Acids in
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These are considered to be the cellular machinery that interacts with the charged tRNA, the mRNA and proteins that leads to Translation occurring.
The Ribosome is a Ribonucleoprotein found floating freely in the cytoplasm of a cell or attached to Endoplasmic Reticulum forming the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. The number of ribosomes that are found in a cell depends on the cell activity of that organism.
They are small particles of about 200 Angstroms. The Ribosome can be divided into two subunits which can be further divided into ribosomal proteins and rRNAs. The RNAs in the Ribosome carry out the catalytic activity and the proteins found in the ribosomes surface stabilizes the structure of the ribosome. The ribosomal protein components enhance the function of the rRNA molecules but are thought not to be fully essential for ribosomal function.

Ribosomes in

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