Female Breast Examination

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Physical Examination of the Female Breast
Physical examination of the female breasts is an important screening method and should be performed by all women periodically (Gotzsche, 2015). The process is useful in early detection of breast cancer which could help in improving the prognosis of the patient. The physical examination and its principles should be learnt by all women as the procedure can be performed at home independently, especially by individuals who are genetically predisposed to cancer (Gotzsche, 2015).
There are several steps that are involved in the clinical breast examination. These begin with inspection when the physician visually examines the breasts. In order for the appropriate visualization, the patient should be standing
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The palpation is carried out carefully and methodically on each breast and the surrounding areas. The examiner should assess the axillary lymph nodes, the collarbone and the breast (Seidel, 2011). There should be no enlargement of the lymph nodes during palpation. Any abnormal masses or lumps that are detected on palpation should be documented and the patient should be referred for further evaluation. The documentation of the lumps should include their structure, size and location. Palpation can be used to differentiate between cancerous and benign lumps. The formed have an uneven shape and are firm (Seidel, 2011). On the other hand, benign lumps are smooth, round, and soft (Seidel, 2011). There should be no pain during palpation of the different parts. During palpation, the physician should also analyze whether there is discharge of abnormal fluids during …show more content…
A breast was the reason for her visit. The history Mrs. A illustrates a familial predisposition to breast cancer. She was given a prescription for a mammogram and biopsy. If the finding indicates cancer she will be referred to an oncologist.
P: There are several other investigations that can be performed which will guide the therapeutic approach for the patient. A CT scan or MRI is useful in determining whether there is metastasis of the cancer to distal lymph nodes and other organs. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females. There is a need for early detection in order to improve the prognosis of the patient. Women should receive education on self-assessment methods to allow them to detect cancer early. After a diagnosis of cancer, the next approach is very important. The physician should provide consultation for the patient and explain the extent of the disease and the different treatment options for the patient such as chemotherapy, radiation, surgical, and drug treatment. Breast cancer staging should be reviewed because staging will help the doctor plan the treatment and to find out if the disease has spread outside the breast. Additional tests will be needed such as a chest X-ray, liver and bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, and/or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The lower numbers indicate earlier stages of cancer, while higher numbers

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