Female Breast Examination

Improved Essays
Physical Examination of the Female Breast
Physical examination of the female breasts is an important screening method and should be performed by all women periodically (Gotzsche, 2015). The process is useful in early detection of breast cancer which could help in improving the prognosis of the patient. The physical examination and its principles should be learnt by all women as the procedure can be performed at home independently, especially by individuals who are genetically predisposed to cancer (Gotzsche, 2015).
There are several steps that are involved in the clinical breast examination. These begin with inspection when the physician visually examines the breasts. In order for the appropriate visualization, the patient should be standing
…show more content…
The palpation is carried out carefully and methodically on each breast and the surrounding areas. The examiner should assess the axillary lymph nodes, the collarbone and the breast (Seidel, 2011). There should be no enlargement of the lymph nodes during palpation. Any abnormal masses or lumps that are detected on palpation should be documented and the patient should be referred for further evaluation. The documentation of the lumps should include their structure, size and location. Palpation can be used to differentiate between cancerous and benign lumps. The formed have an uneven shape and are firm (Seidel, 2011). On the other hand, benign lumps are smooth, round, and soft (Seidel, 2011). There should be no pain during palpation of the different parts. During palpation, the physician should also analyze whether there is discharge of abnormal fluids during …show more content…
A breast was the reason for her visit. The history Mrs. A illustrates a familial predisposition to breast cancer. She was given a prescription for a mammogram and biopsy. If the finding indicates cancer she will be referred to an oncologist.
P: There are several other investigations that can be performed which will guide the therapeutic approach for the patient. A CT scan or MRI is useful in determining whether there is metastasis of the cancer to distal lymph nodes and other organs. Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in females. There is a need for early detection in order to improve the prognosis of the patient. Women should receive education on self-assessment methods to allow them to detect cancer early. After a diagnosis of cancer, the next approach is very important. The physician should provide consultation for the patient and explain the extent of the disease and the different treatment options for the patient such as chemotherapy, radiation, surgical, and drug treatment. Breast cancer staging should be reviewed because staging will help the doctor plan the treatment and to find out if the disease has spread outside the breast. Additional tests will be needed such as a chest X-ray, liver and bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) scans, and/or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Breast cancer stages range from 0 to IV. The lower numbers indicate earlier stages of cancer, while higher numbers

Related Documents

  • Improved Essays

    Additionally, a mammogram is a special type of x-ray taken to look for abnormal growth in the breast tissue; it is one of the most commonly used tests to detect breast cancer (webmd.com). Doctors also use ultrasound to check whether a breast lump is a cyst or a solid mass. In addition, a biopsy I performed by removing cells from a suspicious mass to determine if a lump is just a tumor or…

    • 733 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    To get diagnosed by a physician, many test and procedures can be performed but not all are necessary. These test and procedures consist of blood tests, mammograms, breast MRI’s, bone scans, computerized tomography (CT) scans, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans (“Breast Cancer”). Using these methods to determine the staging of Breast Cancer will give the patient a clarification on their stance with the disease and help with any questions and worries that come forward. While dealing with doubts and fears about this disease, it is critical to also be informed on how to treat and cop with Breast…

    • 718 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Breast Cancer Essay

    • 1001 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Anne’s life was turned around when she found out she had breast cancer. She went to a doctor for a regular check up, then it turned into tons of tests and operations. If Anne found out she had breast cancer earlier before it became too serious, she would most likely be alive today. It is important to know about breast cancer, including the types, symptoms, causes, and treatment.…

    • 1001 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    In the article “All about Pediatric Ependymoma” Dr. Miller explain more facts about the tumors and educating people. She goes into much detail on treating the tumors. Dr. Warren and Dr. Miller are both trying to better educate people on this subject. Dr. Miller goes into much detail on the background of the tumors and educating people on how to treat them. Dr. Warren is more interested on finding out what causes the tumors and figuring out a way to make it easier for health care workers to keep learning more about…

    • 776 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Patients who are interested in receiving genetic counseling should visit Genetic Counseling Services or speak with their physician to request a referral. How Is Colorectal Cancer Diagnosed? A diagnostic work-up for colorectal cancer may include any number of the following exams or tests: Medical History and Physical Exam The physician asks the patient a series of questions about his or her medical history. These questions help the physician identify if the patient has any symptoms or risk factors (including family history) of the disease. The physician also performs a physical examination of the patient to check the abdomen for suspicious masses or enlarged organs.…

    • 1597 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Second, every organization needs to be on the same page. Trustworthy associations like the American Cancer Society and the US Preventive Services Task Force need to meet and discuss the issue so that women have solid recommendations to go by. These organizations also need to back up their statements on mammograms with good evidence to help women get a better understanding. Finally, I think we should require every doctor, no matter what their specialty, have some education on mammograms. This way, anyone in the medical field could answer women’s questions about mammograms and give them reliable information.…

    • 1248 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    It is an X-ray of the breast, and is an effective way to find the cancer early. It is important to find cancer early so you get started on treatment plans before the cancer gets worse. If a person finds cancer early they have a better chance of beating the cancer. A breast MRI is also another way to find cancer in the breast. The MRI takes pictures of the breast using magnets and radio waves.…

    • 1061 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    The facts, and statistics on x-rays. X-rays are also beneficial to women who have cancer. Studies have shown that if a young girl has scoliosis their risk for breast cancer has increased. If a woman 's breast cancer has advanced to the lungs,a chest x-ray to see how the cancer is responding to the treatment. If a woman experiences shortness of breath, or starts to run a fever the doctors will need to run an x-ray.…

    • 1004 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    If the results found by the doctor show any possibility of breast cancer, a diagnostic mammogram will be. The diagnostic mammogram includes more images of the specific area and whether or not this shows notion of cancer, a biopsy will be performed to determine it. During a biopsy, a sample of the afflicted area is removed and looked at under a microscope by a pathologist. After the tissue sample is taken, the doctor will place a tiny metal clip inside the breast at the biopsy site, allowing an easier way of finding the area in the…

    • 1379 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    2015). Another way to make sure that you are on top of checking for breast cancer is to do a simple breast exam on yourself. After figuring out that a person has breast cancer the next step is to find out how aggressive it may be and the cells involved in the cancer. With breast cancer there are four stages. Stage one the cancer cells are in a limited area and very small, at stage two is when the cancer starts to grow or possibly even spread, stage three cancer starts invading surrounding tissues, and stage four the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.…

    • 1002 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays