Hypothyroid Disease A deficiency of the thyroid hormone leads to hypothyroid disease; a disease that may be characterized both in clinical and pathophysiological manifestations throughout the body system. The most prevalent causes of hypothyroid disease include various autoimmune diseases, medication for hyperthyroid disease, and having had surgery on the thyroid. Other not so common causes of hypothyroidism include certain congenital diseases, pituitary disorder, pregnancy, or a deficiency in iodine. Hypothyroid disease may be divided into primary and secondary hypothyroidism. When there is a deficiency in the synthesis of hormones or damage to thyroid tissue, primary hypothyroidism results. Secondary hypothyroid disease, rather,
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Serious complications may result if hypothyroid disease remains untreated. These complications may include the development of a goiter, cardiac problems, a reduced mental status, myxedema, fertility problems, and birth defects. To avoid these complications from occurring, a patient with hypothyroidism should be treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy in order to achieve adequate levels of the thyroid hormone in the body, therefor reversing the symptoms of hypothyroid disease.
The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped structure, situated directly below the larynx at the midline of the anterior neck, with the gland’s two lobes on either side of the larynx attached by the isthmus. This gland is made up of a multitude of very small saclike structures referred to as follicles. These follicles are the functional aspect of the thyroid gland; they are made with a solitary coat of epithelial cells and are filled with a secretory material called colloid. This material is comprised mainly of a glycoprotein-tyrosinc compound, specifically thyroglobulin. This substance that functions in filling the thyroid particles is a big glycoprotein molecule that contains 140 tyrosinc amino acids. When the thyroid is synthesized, iodine attaches to these tyrosinc molecules and both thyroglobulin and iodide are secreted into the colloid of the follicle. This secretion is accomplished through the