Hydrocephalus Research Papers

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Hydrocephalus Having a big head is usually taken in a humorous and figurative manner, but when it comes to hydrocephalus it is taken very literally and seriously. Hydrocephalus is a condition in which cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain, enlarging the head and causing brain damage (MedicineNet, 2016). Hydrocephalus can be a result of the ventricles producing too much cerebrospinal fluid. There can also be an obstruction which reduces the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, as well as inadequate absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid into the bloodstream (Boston Children 's Hospital, 2016).
Diagnosis of hydrocephalus is usually based on prevalence of signs and symptoms, general physical examinations, or brain imaging tests (Mayo Clinic Staff,
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Most cases are diagnosed in the first two years of life, but onset may occur at any age depending on the cause (National Organization for Rare Disorders, 2016). It is estimated that one to two of every one-thousand babies born have hydrocephalus, making it a common cause of developmental disabilities (Hydrocephalus Association, n.d.). Each year an estimated ten-thousand people in the United States and Canada will be diagnosed with hydrocephalus (Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network, 2016). Hydrocephalus seems to affect male and female populations equally (National Organization for Rare Disorders, 2016). Rates per one-hundred thousand people have ranged from approximately three cases for individuals aged fifty to fifty-nine, to around forty-nine cases for people aged sixty to sixty-nine, and roughly one-hundred-eighty-one cases for adults aged seventy to seventy-nine (Shprecher, Schwalb, & Kurlan, 2008). In infants and toddlers hydrocephalus symptoms include nausea, vomiting, seizures, and unusually large head size. Infants also showed deficits in muscle tone and strength, expected growth, and responsiveness to touch. For adults symptoms include headaches, double vision, and a decline in overall thinking skills. Adults may also have difficulty walking and difficulty remaining awake (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2016), along with urinary incontinence, which tends to appear later in the disease than difficulty walking and cognitive decline (Alzheimer 's Association, 2016). Older adults showed slower than normal movements in general (Mayo Clinic Staff,

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