Howard Gardner And Cattell's Theory Of Intelligence

794 Words 4 Pages
Introduction
Intelligence has been a controversial topic for many years. What is intelligence? Who has it? How do you measure it? Is there more than one type of intelligence? There are many theories that explain “intelligence”. Some theories of intelligence are Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Sternberg’s theory of triarchic intelligence, and Cattell’s theory of intelligence, and many others have been proposed throughout the years. Many views have been brought up and many names are known because of the complexity that intelligence plays in our society. Given that it is hard to measure intelligence because there are many opinions and no clear way to measure it, we work with theories that help in discovering the basis of human intelligence.
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He is an American psychologist and a graduate of Harvard University. Howard Gardner viewed intelligence as ‘the capacity to solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting’ (Gardner & Hatch, 1989). In 1983, Gardner introduced a new way of measuring intelligence. He argued that there was 8 eight different ways for intelligence to be shown. These intelligences are: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, naturalistic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Linguistic intelligence meaning having a sensitivity to spoken or written word; Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance or composition of musical patterns; Spatial intelligence includes the ability to recognize patterns in wide and compact areas; Body-kinesthetic intelligence is the ability to solve problems with one’s own body; Naturalistic intelligence it having a sensitivity to all things natural (i.e. plants, animals, etc.); Interpersonal Intelligence is being in tuned to the intention, motivations, and desires of other people; and Intrapersonal is capacity to understand …show more content…
Like lacking in one area is covered by excelling in others. Criticism to Gardner’s theory was that he proposed his intelligences to exploit talents as forms of intelligences (Neisser, et al.). However, despite not being accepted inside academic psychology it was widely accepted by many educators. “It had been embraced by a range of educational theorists and, significantly, applied by teachers and policy makers to the problems of schooling.” (Smith, 2002, 2008)
Robert Jeffery Sternberg was born December 8, 1949 in Newark, NJ. He is an American psychologist and psychometrician. “. Robert Sternberg is an expert researcher in the areas of creativity, intelligence, cognitive styles and love.” (Famous Psychologist, 2014) Sternberg is the founder of the triarchic model of intelligence that suggests that people function on three bases: componential, experiential, and contextual. The componential area refers to the analytical thinking, creative thinking applies to experiential area, and contextual area relates to practical thinking. Another theory of intelligence

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