Harlem Renaissance Essay Outline

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The Harlem Renaissance (1919-1929) The Harlem Renaissance, originally known as the New Negro Movement, received its’ name from Harlem, a large neighborhood within Manhattan, New York. From 1917-1935, nearly 175,000 African Americans, mainly from the south, turned this neighborhood into the largest concentration of black people in the world. Out of this, came a cultural, social, artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that lit a new black cultural identity.
Important Events
• The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (1910) o Focused on legal strategies designed to confront the civil rights issues. o W.E.B. Dubois was the cofounder and editor of the Crisis.
• James Weldon Johnson’s novel Autobiography of
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o Abstract symbolism
• Laura Wheeler Waring art was displayed in the country’s first exhibition of African-American Art. (1927) o William E. Harmon Foundation
• Meta Fuller’s art bridged the gap between the black presence in European art and the gradual acceptance of the black artists as a whole.
Literature
• Authors wrote fiction, non-fiction, novels, plays, children’s books, published essays, articles, and etc.
• The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald was published. (1925)
• Close relationship to civil rights and reform organizations.
• Enslaved and illiterate to free and literate in a short span of about 50 years.
• Promoted equality, condemned racism and injustice, and celebrated African American culture and spirituality.
• Magazines were crucial to the movement. o The Crisis displayed hopeful insistence on racial justice. o Opportunity aimed to give voice to black culture. o The Messenger was a socialist journal.
 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters was a black labor union.
 Wallace Thurman
• Langston Hughes’ writing reflected the idea that black culture should be celebrated just as much as white
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o Vacuum cleaners, electric refrigerators, washing machines, and irons saved hours of extra work. o The first supermarket. (1930)
• “BUY NOW, PAY LATER” – Buying on credit made buying these new conveniences possible for the single-income family.
• Consumer debt more than doubled. (1920-1930)
• Advertisers no long responded to consumer demand, the created it. o Psychology methods to convince Americans the needed a product. o Radio was an important need for communicating. o Celebrities started to sell products.
Flappers
• Women joined the workforce while the men were at war.
• With the 19th Amendment, women won the right to vote. (1919)
• They started to attend college. o The Equal Rights Amendment was proposed by Alice Paul in 1923.
• Women starting having steady jobs and an active nightlife.
• Speakeasies, jazz clubs, and smoking were not just for men anymore.
• Shorter hair and shorter hemlines but also started to wear pants more often. o The men started to wear suits that had bold colors.
Religion
• The Harlem Renaissance inspired religion to flourish. o Different types of Christianity and churches evolved.
• The African American Pentecostal was made.

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