Frederick Law Olmsted: Forest Management

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In 1888, Frederick Law Olmsted was hired by George Washington Vanderbilt to work on the grounds of Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina, which is now the Pisgah National Forest. During this time, Olmsted formulated the first program of forest management. In 1892, Olmsted hired a trained forester by the name of Gifford Pinchot to help him create a comprehensive forest management plan. Under the Olmsted’s guidance, Pinchot carried out the Biltmore Working Plan, which had three main objectives: a near continuous year-round yield of forest commodities, lucrative production, and an enhancement in the state of the forest. Despite demanding circumstances, this comprehensive plan demonstrated that forestry could be profitable while
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McHarg was a Scottish landscape architect, planner and professor, whose devotion for interconnecting communities and ecology inspired many of his successors. McHarg was widely known as the father of GIS due to his early use of photographic map overlay analysis in the 1960s. He almost single-handedly created a method of evaluating all features of a plot of land by utilizing different layers of stacked transparent Mylar maps; McHarg was ahead of his time by using these layering procedures, which are now a prerequisites for environmental impact reviews required prior to the commencement of a construction project. In his deeply influential 1969 book, Design with Nature, Ian authored the concept of ecological concerns into land planning; the book also formalized a design practice that prioritized incorporating nature throughout the urban landscape and promoted “landscape architecture as an instrument of environmentalism.” Furthermore, Ian’s book predicated the basic concepts in modern GIS analysis to the masses, including the map overlays of factors to reveal spatial patterns of “intrinsic suitability” for diverse land-uses. He was also an early supporter of restricting plantings to native species, both for well thought-out philosophical causes and because introducing a foreign species may disturb the ecology of a region. As a result of his early use of multidisciplinary-based suitability analysis and his avant-garde achievements in the field of GIS sciences, McHarg was …show more content…
An important figure in the history of the Wilderness movement and of the U.S. Forest Service is Arthur Carhart. Besides being the first U.S. Forest Service first Landscape Architect, Carhart was America's first official in a land management agency to advocate for wilderness. Carhart’s boldest move occurred in 1919, when he worked in the Forest Service’s Denver district office and was appointed to survey a road around Trappers Lake in the White River National Forest of Colorado. Moreover, his assignment also included finding sites to build summer homes on the lakeshore. During this assignment, Carhart became convinced that the best use of the area would be for wilderness recreation. His recommendation against development was a brave and daring effort for a Junior Forest Service employee at the time. However, Carhart’s courage paid off and he managed to convince District Forester Carl J. Stahl that the area would be best suited for wilderness recreation. This is how Trappers Lake became the first area in history to be designated as wilderness, which meant that no roads or any kind of development could take place in the area. Arthur Carhart’s courage was the first catalyst that propelled the Wilderness movement, which eventually led to congress establishing the National Wilderness Preservation System in 1964. In present-day, over 700 areas in

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