Essay on Explain The Pathophysiology Of Pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis refers to infection of the kidney parenchyma and renal pelvis. It is a type of urinary tract infection that can effect one or both kidneys. There are two forms of pyelonephritis, acute and chronic. Acute pyelonephritis tends to be causes by gram-negative bacteria. The infection usually ascends from the lower urinary tract to the bloodstream. Some factors that contribute to the development of acute pyelonephritis are catheterization and urinary instrumentation, vesico ureteral reflux, pregnancy, and neurogenic bladder. Hematogenous acute pyelonephritis occurs in debilitated chronically ill people and those receiving immunosuppressive therapy. Chronic pyelonephritis is a progressive process. There is scarring and deformation of the renal calyces and pelvis. This seems to involve a bacterial infection superimposed on obstructive abnormalities or vesicoureteral reflux. Reflux, is the most common cause of chronic pyelonephritis, resulting from superimposition of infection on congenital vesicoureteral reflux or intrarenal reflux. Reflux may be unilateral with involvement of a single kidney or bilateral, leading to scarring and atrophy of both kidneys with eventual development of chronic renal insufficiency.
2. Discuss the complications that may occur with pyelonephritis.
Chronic pyelonephritis can happen if there risk a history of recurrent episode of UTI or…