Explain The Developmental Phases For American Cities

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1. What are the developmental phases for American cities? Briefly describe each stage of development discussing the most important features for city development.

There are five developmental phases for American cities. The earliest phase of urban development begins with the frontier urbanization. This period in time is characterized by the U.S. economy attempting to organize itself until independence begins to take place. The second phase (1790-1840) falls under the wraths of “merchantilism,” or merchant trading. During this time period, a more extensive system of central places begins to emerge (local marketing, service centers, etc.). The third phase takes place between 1840 and1875. An expansion and realignment of the urban system in response to early industrialization, the mechanization of agriculture, and immigration characterize this particular period. The fourth phase, also referred to as the Industrialization period (1875-1920), displays the effects of principles of industrial location the development and adaptation of the urban system. The fifth and final period (1920-1945) corresponds with the emergence of Fordism and mass-produced cars, trucks, and airplanes, which significantly altered the spatial organization of the urban system. Significant changes also occur in corporate organizations by businessmen and
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Fordism became achievable by a combination of lower prices and higher wages. It was paid for by higher productivity squeezed from economies of scale, assembly-line production, and “scientific” management. This was also referred to as “Taylorism”. One result was that the price of cars fell significantly, making car ownership possible for a widening segment of society and drawing more people into the infill suburbs between the streetcar corridors and railroad

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