Victim Blaming In Rape

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Literature Review
Theoretical Orientation Living in a society where victim blaming in rape cases has become a social norm when exploring rape culture as a whole. Focusing primarily on victim blaming, research can provide evidence of inequalities in the criminal justice system that impacts the sentencing of perpetrators. Common aspects seem from victim blaming is creditable of the victim, perpetrator’s race, and/or class, and patriarchy has all influence sentencing in regards to the guilty party. In fact, cultures of patriarchy have shown “higher level of female sociopolitical power tended to experience higher rates of rape and the lower proportion of rape cases cleared by arrest” (Johnson, 2014). As well as, when “female involvement increased
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A study by Pino & Meier (1999) states rape is a serious, violent crime vastly under-reported in all jurisdictions because a victim’s income and educational status can affect reporting to the police (p.980). Furthermore, when women try reporting a rape crime police often request “physical evidence of the crime to corroborate their claims and mainly focus on if the assailant is a relative, was a weapon present, education, and income background, and whether something was stolen ” (Pino & Meier, 1999). On the other hand, “men fail to report rape when it jeopardizes their masculine self-identity because men who become rape victims have failed in their duties as ‘real men’” (Pino & Meirer, 1999). For instance, a male rape is a sign they could not protect themselves and their masculinity destroyed unless certain evidence could prove otherwise. A type of evidence is the “assailant severely injures the male requiring medical treatment; providing justification the victim was overpowered he never acted in a non-masculine way” (Pino & Meier, 1999). More importantly, Sleath & Bull (2010) state that male and female victims of rape are blamed behaviorally (victim not taking precautions) and characterologically (blaming is focused on victim character, personality, and disposition)

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