Essay On Mechanical Ventilation

605 Words 3 Pages
Mechanical ventilation is required in up to 50% of all critically ill patients during their hospital course. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia that develops 48 hours after a patient has been placed on mechanical ventilation. It is most commonly caused by bacterial infections including fungi and viral epidemics and it is usually found in the sterile lower respiratory tract.
Early diagnosis and the appropriate use of antibiotics will help to avoid the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms. This can be cured with appropriate antibiotic treatment along with strategies preventing the transmission of pathogenic organisms to patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The failure to prescribe the correct type of antibiotic increases the mortality rates.
Common risk factors known for VAP are back rest elevation, maintaining endotracheal tube cuff pressure, selection of endotracheal tube
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In order to reduce aspiration risk, professionals are now maintaining the endotracheal tube cuff pressure at 20mmHg. This prevents the cuff from leaking and prevents surplus substances from intruding in. Placing patients in a semi-recumbent position and elevating the head of the bed to 30 to 45 degrees will prevent reflux. It is also recommended to minimize opening the ventilator circuit, and to keep the ventilator circuit closed during condensate removal. The circuit should only be changed when it is visibly soiled or malfunctioning. The use of passive humidifiers or heat-moisture exchangers (HME) decrease ventilator circuit colonization but have not significantly reduced the incidence of VAP.
Decontaminating the mouth has become a routine to prevent VAP. Aspiration in the lower respiratory tract is treated with Chlorhexidine mouth wash or gel. Doing this reduces the odds of ventilator-associated pneumonia by

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