Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages Of Herbal Medicines

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INTRODUCTION
About 2400 years BC, Hippocrates advised: “Let food be your medicine and medicine be your food” (Rishi 2006). Herbal medicines are used as a method of diseases treatment all over the world, especially in some countries like Iran. Advantages, such as less adverse effects, therapeutic efficacy, and lower final prices, make them a good alternative source for synthetic drugs. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) are the most common drugs used to treat joint, bone, and muscle inflammation and pain. Nevertheless, NSAIDs may cause gastrointestinal discomfort and even cause stomach ulcers (Sostres, Gargallo et al. 2010). In addition, widely used NSAIDs, such as naproxen, low-dose ibuprofen, and diclofenac in doses available
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coluteoides bioss were collected from Sabzevar located in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran and recognized in herbarium of Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Preparation of extracts: The aerial parts of this plant were washed with distilled water to remove the possible major surficial pollutions. Then, they were dried in shade and powdered. The extract was prepared using 100 g of the powdered part of the plant, which added to ethanol 98% and distilled water (600 cc) and left for 48 h at room temperature. The supernatant was filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter and ethanol was evaporated at rotatory evaporator under reduced pressure. The lyophilization of the final product was prepared on a Freeze dryer (EPSILON 2–6D; Martin Christ, Osterode am Harz, Germany).
Animals: Male albino Wistar rats weighing 250–300 g were used for formalin test induced edema. The animals were obtained from the Animal Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran and were housed at constant temperature (22 ± 2°C) in a light-controlled room (12-h light/dark cycle) and were fed with standard rodent
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1996, Fisslthaler, Popp et al. 1999). Node et al. (1999) described a new autocrine role for EETs in endothelial cells as anti-inflammatory mediators.
Researches have been carried out to recognize the way of inhibition of PLA2 by n-hexadecanoic acid. The enzyme kinetics study showed that n-hexadecanoic acid inhibited PLA2 in a competitive manner. It has been recommended that n-hexadecanoic acid might function as an anti-inflammatory agent by binding at the active site of PLA2. The asymmetric unit of the crystal contained one molecule of PLA2, one molecule of n-hexadecanoic acid, two calcium ions, and 58 water molecules (Muller, Lena et al. 2006).
The results of the present study indicated that while the ethanolic extract of C. coluteoides bioss had significant inhibitory effects on formalin-induced inflammation, C. coluteoides bioss at doses of 50 mg/kg reduced the inflammation of formalin significantly. This implies that the low dose (50 mg/kg) of C. coluteoides bioss extract acted more efficiently compared to SS, as a NSAID, in the late phase (i.e., up to 60 min) of inflammation. Yet, both C. coluteoides bioss extract and SS showed similar anti-inflammatory effects in the chronic phase of formalin-induced

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