Water Hardness Research Paper

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Water Hardness EEI Water is a covalent molecule and is formed between one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms. This is because oxygen needs to gain two electrons to become like neon and hydrogen needs to gain one electron to become like helium so they share electrons for each hydrogen atom and the oxygen atom ‘consider’ that they have achieved the noble gas configuration. This covalent bond forms a bent shape in order to share the necessary electrons. Water has many unique properties, one of which has allowed life to continue to exist during the first ice ages millions of years ago on Earth: if ice didn’t have a lower density than water, the oceans would have frozen from the bottom up, killing all forms of life. The molecules in water have …show more content…
The presence of solutes causes a decrease in the freezing point of water and an increase in it’s boiling point. This adjustment of the melting or boiling point can be used to advantage. Ethylene glycol is added to water in car radiators to increase the boiling point in hot conditions and to act as antifreeze in cold conditions. The boiling point of water will increase 0.512°C for each 76 g of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) added to 1000 g of water and the freezing point will decrease 1.86°C for each 76 g of ethylene glycol added to 1000 g of water. This is also why salt is sprayed on roads in cold areas—reducing the chance of ice forming by lowering the freezing point. In the treatment of water for Brisbane, the water is first filtered, and then ammonia and chlorine (in the form of hypochlorous acid, HOCl) are added to form chloramine, which kills any remaining bacteria and viruses. Chloramine (NH2Cl) is a compound made from chlorine and ammonia.The concentration of chloramine is maintained in the water to ensure bacteria do not re-grow in the distribution system. HOCl + NH3 → NH2Cl + H2O. These substances, while safeguarding the water, may cause a slight odour and can be toxic to aquatic life. For this reason, tap water should not be used …show more content…
In hot water appliances, a scale (or precipitate) of calcium carbonate may build up on the heating element. Scale build-up in the water heater can slow the heating process and increase the energy usage. This suggests that change in temperature may alter the solubility of solutes. The aim of this investigation is to use a quantitative method to determine the hardness of tank, river and tap water. The hypothesis is that the tank water will be the softest because it contains doesn’t contain any chemicals and minimal natural minerals as it hasn’t yet touched the ground. The river water will be the hardest because it has creatures and plants that are both dead and alive as well as natural minerals from the river bed and

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