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Lecture 1 «The history and culture of Great Britain»
Great Britain is located to the north-west (на северо западе) of the continental Europe, on the British Isles. The Island of GB and the Island of Ireland are the largest. The islands of Great Britain consist of: -England, the state`s historical proper -Wales, conquered by England under the reign of Edward 1 in the 13th century - Scotland attached to England be Treaty of Union in 1707 The Island of Ireland is shared by: - Northern Ireland- a part of the UK - the republic of Ireland, founded in 1632

Britain is relatively small (half of the size of France); 20 % smaller than Italy. Twice the size of New York. It’s less than 1000km from the
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16 commonwealth realms(UK, Canada, New Zealand)
Promote democracy, good governance, human rights, the rule of lan, individual liberty, egalitarianism, free trade, multilateralism, and world peace.
Parliamentary (restricted, constitutional) monarchy.
Queen is officially head of the legislative, executive, and juridical branches of power. But she has little direct power. Elizabeth II Windsor has been queen of GB since 1952. Elizabeth the second, by Grace of God, of the UK of GB and NI and of her other realms and territories Queen, head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.

The Parliament is located in Westminster.
The legislative power is represented by Parliament that has three parts: the Queen, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The main functions of Parliament: - to pass laws - to vote on financial bills - To discuss the government’s administrative policies (foreign affairs, the state of agriculture) - To debate important political issues of the day - Duration-5 years

Members of the House of Lords are: the Lords Spiritual(representatives of established church: Anglican archbishops, the Bishops of Durham, London, Winchester ) and the Lords Temporal(hereditary peers).
The House is presided are by the Lord Chancellor.

Members of the House of Commons are elected by the voters of 650 constituencies.
It`s presided over by Speaker, chosen by The MPs, he must

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