Dna Sequencing : A Method Of Separating The Dna Molecules Into Subcomponents Based On Their Band Size

1501 Words May 26th, 2016 null Page
DNA sequencing is a method of separating the DNA molecules into subcomponents based on their band size in order to easily identify the four building block nucleotides bases (A, T, C, and G). By doing so, “scientists can use sequence information to determine which stretches of DNA contain genes and which stretches carry regulatory instructions, and even turn genes on or off (National Human Genome Research Institute, 2016).” Most importantly, sequence data can highlight changes in a gene that may cause disease later in life, which allows researchers to treat patients with genetic defects before the gene is transferred to the offspring. The sequencing process employs an electrophoresis technique in which DNA sample is chopped up into smaller components and poured into one end of the electrophoresis chamber that contains electrolyte solutions. The electrophoresis machine is equipped with a cathode (a positive end) and an anode (a negative end) just like AA batteries, so that electrons can flow from one end to the other without any disruption. A gel made of polyacrylamide mixture is placed between the two end of the machine and a small series of wells (about a half an inch in length) are molded into the positive end of the gel for DNA loading. To speed up the movement of the electrons, an electrolyte solution is poured into the chamber. When DNA sample is poured into the wells and an electrical current is applied to the chamber, the movement of electrons from the positive end…

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