Difference Between Cultural And Social Capital Theory

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Cultural and Social Capital Theory

The theory of capital first explored in the 19th century by German philosopher and economist Marx (1995/1867, 1885,1894) and further developed during its reemergence in the 20th century by sociologist Bourdieu (1986), supports the notion of capital in its various forms as a set of constraints governing our chances of success (Marx, 1995/1867, 1885,1894; Bourdieu 1986). Both cultural and social capital have been identified to be a valuable resource that set people in the path to success by providing them with opportunities and support that promote their advancement in society. Unlike other resources however, cultural and social capital a scare resource and thus not equally distributed or accessible to everyone,
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By participating in activities promoting the acquisition of knowledge outside of the classroom, for example, students develop experiences which are helpful in making connections to prior knowledge or new concepts hence improving their learning and chances of success in class. Although academic success is in part attributed to the level of capital, the experiences encompassing the capital individuals possess also plays a role in the determination of success. According to Okey and Cusick’s (1995) study, students’ decision to drop out of school derived from the cultural and social capital established by the families’ generational cycle of negative encounters with school and education. The development and accumulation of positive and meaningful experiences is fundamental to escape the existing capital deficiency. Studies of students’ consistent participation in diverse activities that offer opportunities to increase their capital indicate that the accumulation of capital is tied to their achievement as these experiences promote networking and competencies needed for the successful completion of education (Strayhorn, 2010). While many factors influence students’ chances of success in college, according to research cultural capital is a large …show more content…
Society has entrusted the education system for many years with the responsibility of preparing individuals for successful integration into the workforce, particularly in careers helping the nation to remain competitive and a leader in the world. The interconnectedness between the accumulation of capital and the role it plays in academic achievement influences the role individuals taken on as they become active members of society. In the report A Nation at Risk (1983) the National Commission on Excellence in Education raises concern to the account that “other [nations] are matching and surpassing our educational attainments” thus higher levels of capital benefit society as a whole because we live in an era in which “skills, literacy, and training” are non-negotiables. Evidently, the solution is to prepare students to reach new heights of academic attainment, the dilemma remains that to help students achieve academic success more opportunities for increases cultural and social capital need to be considered. In the long-term, increasing capital promises fruitful results as shown by research identifying social capital not only as a predictor of academic achievement and attainment but also as a predictor of quality of life (M. Karimzadeh, Ahmad, & B. Karimzadeh, 2013) an issue to which all

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