Erikson's Theories Of Child Development

975 Words 4 Pages
Child development is defined as the physical and mental changes that take place in humans between birth and the end of adolescence, from dependency to autonomy. Many different periods exist in this time span, as well as individual differences with each one. Child development has helped greatly in the understanding of the social, cognitive, and emotional developments in children. Research has been increasing in the field of child development, and there are many theories that seek to understand growth and development in children. Major theorists Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, and Urie Bronfenbrenner have developed theories that have shaped the modern field of child development.
Jean Piaget 's four stage theory describes children’s
…show more content…
In each stage, the person will be confronted with new challenges and may or may not be able to master them, and each stage is based off of the success of the previous stage. The stages that are not successfully completed may reappear in the future. The first stage is of hopes, where the infant’s basic needs should be met by its parents. According to Erikson, this is where the infant develops trust or mistrust. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt, where the 2-3 year old sill strengthen its willpower through caregivers encouraging self-sufficiency. Erikson’s third stage is initiative vs. guilt, where the 4-5 year old develops purpose. This is where the child develops basic skills and common knowledge about objects. The fourth stage is industry vs. inferiority, where the 6-12 year old develops competence, learning skills like responsibility and doing good. The fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, where the 13-19 year old will go through what Erikson referred to as an “identity crisis”. Here, they will wonder who they are and what they can be. The final stage is intimacy vs. isolation, where the 20-40 year old can wonder if they can love. Erikson’s work is influential to child educators because it shows the development of a child’s foundation for emotional, social, and mental development. Inspired by Erikson, many practices will make sure …show more content…
These influential aspects of the environments can include culture, work, parents, friends, or school. Bronfenbrenner view of human development was called the ecological systems theory. It states that many different levels of environmental influences can affect a child 's development, from individual differences to societal culture. It has helped professionals to better understand why people behave differently in the presence of a family member as opposed to in the presence of a friend. In 1964, Bronfenbrenner stated that action should be taken towards children to reduce the negative effects of poverty on children. Bronfenbrenner’s efforts led to the creation of the Head Start Program, used in many schools in order to provide low-income parents with services and information about how to help their

Related Documents