Development Of School Practices Throughout History Essay

1810 Words Dec 13th, 2014 8 Pages
In Graham’s Schooling America, a historical account of the development of school practices throughout history is presented. In the 1920’s, Lewis Terman created an intelligence test and eventually this test was administered on a wide scale (Graham, 2005, p. 72). This tool was used to identify gifted children who might benefit from additional services, and also to provide resources to those who did measure up to standards. After an analysis of scores, Terman recognized that race correlated with scores, and attributed this to hereditary differences in intelligence (Educational Resources Information Center, p. 11). He interpreted this as an indication of Anglo-Saxon superiority in intelligence. Also this was due to the widespread conception of intelligence as a fixed inborn ability, and that a test could accurately measure intelligence. Ford noted that early IQ testing did not include minority students in the norming standardization (2004 p.12). However, after looking at the research, Terman’s view of intelligence and what it means to be gifted is no longer accepted. Instead, a more dynamic view of intelligence led to additional identification measures beyond a single test. After years of Terman’s static idea, there are now different theories on intelligence. Specifically, the two main types of intelligence are called crystallized and fluid (Ford, 2004, p.25). Crystallized intelligence is acquired knowledge and fluid intelligence is one’s ability to logically problem solve in…

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