Psychological Study Of Depression

Superior Essays
Through numerous studies in the field of psychological-health study, as early as 1893, an association between depression and the cause of different types of cancers seem to be widely studied. Five studies based on the link between severe or chronic depression and the development of cancer are reviewed.
In a study of the causation of cancer in chronic depressed elders, Chronically Depressed Mood and Cancer Risk in Older Persons, results show that there is a considerable correlation between chronic depression and the risk of cancer in persons of 65 years and older. Out of the 4825 persons from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly studied, 146 persons (3% of the total study sample) are chronically depressed (depressed
…show more content…
Cédric Lemogne’s correspondences. 14,203 members of the GAZEL cohort in France, were studied throughout from 1994-2009. Self-reported depression cases through the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were collected in 1993, 1996, and 1999. During the 15.2 years of study, 1,119 participants were diagnosed with at least one primary case of cancer. Considering the most popular cancer states (breast, colorectal, smoking-related, prostate, lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues), and 4 depression states, one positive and one negative relationship were found; A positive correlation between SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder) and other-site cancers, and a negative correlation between depressive symptoms and prostate cancer. This provided no compelling evidence for the hypothesis that depression is positively correlated with cancer risk. The strength of this study is the large pool of participants, the long duration of the study (15.2 years), diverse covariates, and the study of different cancer states. Limitations to the study are 136 participants died of cancer without reported diagnosis, which may be due to the short period of time between detected diagnoses and death, or a depressed state and the low intention to report or do screenings (resulting in type 2 error). Secondly, depression is often underreported in hospitals. However, even after taking these …show more content…
However, it induced that depression is linked to unhealthy lifestyles, a factor contributing to certain types of cancer. 89,491 individuals were hospitalized for depression, and studied over 12.5 years. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with a primary case of unipolar depression. 45 percent of patients had a second incident of another psychiatric disorder after the first diagnoses, with 17 percent of the patients diagnosed with alcoholic psychiatric disorders. As a result of the study, 9,922 cases of cancer were diagnosed, yielding a 1.05 SIR. The amount of cancer cases diagnosed was the highest during the first year of hospitalization, neutral during the 1-9 years, and had a significant increase of 7 percent after 9 years on the initial diagnosis. Patients with 2-diagnosis level of reactive depression were reported with an increase of cancer cases in the first year, and later on excess cancer cases found to be mostly Tabaco-related. Brain cancer cases were with the biggest significant increase in cancer cases during the first year of follow-up, with cases in bipolar psychosis patients reaching almost three times in increased numbers. However, no significant increase was shown after the first year of follow-up. About 44 percent of the 106 excess

Related Documents

  • Superior Essays

    “The number of deaths among men has reached a plateau but the number is still rising among women. In 2012, there were 86,000 deaths due to lung cancer in men and 70,000 in women. During 2015, an estimated 200,000 new cases of lung cancer were expected to be diagnosed, representing about 13 percent of all cancer diagnoses. Lung Cancer is the most common out of all the other cancers.”…

    • 1454 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Superior Essays

    “Although second primary cancers are a leading cause of death among men with testicular cancer, few studies have quantified risks among long-term survivors. Among 10 year survivors diagnosed with testicular cancer at age 35 years old, the risk of developing a second solid tumor was increased. Risk remained statistically significantly elevated for 35 years. We observed statistically significantly elevated risk for the first time for cancers of the pleura. Overall patterns were similar for seminoma and nonseminoma patients, with lower risk observed for nonseminoma patients treats after 1975.…

    • 1221 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Fake Tanning Bed Essay

    • 1602 Words
    • 7 Pages

    One in five people who use a tanning bed with develop skin cancer. Also, the annual cost of treating skin cancers is estimated at $8.1 billion (Skin). However, actinic keratosis is the most common cancer and it affects more than 58 million Americans…

    • 1602 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Superior Essays

    Lung cancer statistics that have been provided have included both non-small and small lung cancer cells. Lung cancer is the second most common among both men and women. Prostate cancer is most common in men whereas breast cancer is the most common in women (“What are the key statistics about lung cancer?” cancer.org). 13% of all new cancer cases are diagnosed as lung cancer (“What are the key statistics about lung cancer?” cancer.org). According to the American Cancer Society, in 2015, there are approximately 221,000 new cases of cancer.…

    • 1367 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Superior Essays
  • Improved Essays

    From 2011 to 2013, approximately 39.0 percent of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer of any site at some point during their life. Death rates are higher for those who are middle age or older. The Hospital has a cancer center that specializes in care of these patients, doctors, nurses, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants all work together on this floor to achieve the best outcome of the patient. No two patients are alike, so treatment and the responses to treatment can vary between person to person. The most common cancer in females is Breast Cancer, with an average of 246,660 cases in 2016 and 40,450 deaths.…

    • 806 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Great Essays

    Lung Cancer Case Study

    • 1637 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Lung Cancer is the leading cause to cancer-related deaths around the world, with approximately 1/3 of all cancer related death. (Comparison of Four Chemotherapy Regimens for Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer)Approximately seventy percent of people who are diagnosed with lung cancer present with advanced or metastatic (Molina, Yang, Cassivi, Schild, & Adjei, 2008). Non-small-cell lung cancer accounts for approximately eighty-five percent of lung cancers diagnosed in the world. (Molina, Yang, Cassivi, Schild, & Adjei, 2008). There are many different types of treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer, but there has not been one specific treatment that has completely cured lung cancer.…

    • 1637 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Great Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women around the world” (Laberge). Although the death rate of cervical cancer has declined dramatically since 1955 due to the Papanicolaou test, Pap test for short, even when caught early cervical cancer has a 93% percent survival rate of only 5 years (McCathy). Other cancers can be caused by this disease, as previously stated, but this is one of the most deadly. Other health problems caused by HPV include, but are not limited to, “warts on the soles of the feet (plantar warts), common warts on the hands, and flat warts on the face or legs”, as well as “genital warts” (Maltzman). These health problems can occur in both men and…

    • 1154 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    According to Ministry of Health (2017), cancer is currently the leading cause of death in Singapore, accounting for 29.6% of deaths in 2016. Approximately 1 out of every 4 – 5 Singaporeans have the risk of developing cancer in their lifetime. (National Registry of Diseases Office, 2016) One of the main ways in treating cancer would be through Radiation Therapy. It is often used as a curative treatment alone or in conjunction with surgery and/or chemotherapy depending on the type of cancer. However, toxicities associated with radiation therapy using photons can be significant due to the characteristic properties of the photon beam.…

    • 1829 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Cancer is defined as the disease that causes division of abnormal cells uncontrolled. Cancer is responsible for one out of every five deaths in the United States. It is second only to heart disease as a cause of death in this country (“Cancer”). Cancer is not just one disease, but a group of almost one hundred diseases. Every year, millions of people are diagnosed with cancer.…

    • 1083 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Improved Essays
  • Improved Essays

    Stacey Simon released an article on behalf of the American Cancer Society on cancer statistics. This article is based on research from the past two decades, showing that the death rate fell for men and women by 23%. The article reports statistics on “lung, colon, prostate and breast cancer” along with new cancers that are increasing, and cancer in children. The rate of new cancer diagnosis from 2009 to 2012 decreased by 3.1% in men, but stayed about the same in women. Cancer Statistics, 2016 published in the American Cancer Society’s Journal, that they projected for the year 2016 a total of 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 deaths.…

    • 808 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Improved Essays