Definition Essay On Inclusive Education

1216 Words 5 Pages
Research Question: How can I re-examine my understandings about inclusive definition and

practices in order to re-think of ways and factors that can support all students with various

abilities to participate fully in an inclusive environment?

Inclusive education has become the main focus of the controversial discussions about the

development of a successful educational practice around the world (Farrell and Ainscow, 2002).

Many authors have been trying to define the word “inclusive” in various ways. Zionts (1997)

states that inclusion is the philosophy that brings families, students and different community

members together to build their social institutions based on their sense of acceptance and

belonging. He
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(2003) lists some of these reasons which are associated with ability, gender, backgrounds,

ethnicity, language, socioeconomic status or religion. However, the definition and meaning of

inclusion is still the subject of much heated debate, and defining best practice is not a simple

task (Slee, 2001a).

The inclusive education movement has been endorsed internationally by UNESCO’s

Salamanca Statement which supports the inclusive education policy and how parents should be

included in their children’s learning process (UNESCO, 1994). In addition, the United Nation

Convention on the right of the Child (2009, Article 29, goals of education) mention that

“education must develop every child’s personality, talents and abilities to the full. It must

encourage the child’s respect for human rights, as well as their own and other cultures.”

Moreover, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People (1989) states that people with

disability should be guaranteed the right to inclusive education in all circumstances, regardless

of age, without discrimination and on the basis of equal
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Foreman (2014) mentions that any classroom is an ecosystem where there are some key

factors that influence the understanding of the classroom as a teaching and inclusive learning

environment. The first factor is the teacher’s attitudes, knowledge and beliefs. From the above

controversial discussions, it is clear that the teachers’ attitudes and beliefs toward the inclusive

education can support and fulfill the children’s various needs to participate fully in an inclusive

classroom environment. LeRoy and Simpson (1996) recognise that trained teachers are more

confident and with a positive attitude than others who did not have training. This finding was

also supported by the research of Beh-Pajooh (1992) and Shimman (1990). They found that

teachers’ practices and attitudes affect the acceptance of students with disabilities by their

peers (Pavri, 2000), therefore their role in inclusion has been seen as one of the most critical

factors in the success or failure of inclusive programs. Moreover, Jordan, Glenn & McGhie-

Richmond (2010) agree to Sharma (2012) when they discuss that teachers have to believe

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