Classification Of Different Criteria ( Liao & Fukuya 2004 ) Essay

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As will be further discussion in Chapter II, there is no agreement on classification of PVs, although different scholars have attempted to classify them on the basis of different criteria (Liao & Fukuya 2004). Many terms are used in the literature to describe PVs, such as literal, transparent, semitransparent, systematic, completive, opaque, figurative, and idiomatic. Celce-Murcia and Larsen Freeman (1999) classify PVs into literal, idiomatic, and aspectual. Literal PVs are those whose elements keep much of their meaning. An example of a literal PV is to look for such as, he is looking for his keys. However, in idiomatic PVs, the regular meaning of separate words is lost. An example would be the idiomatic PV to make up, meaning, to reconcile. The aspectual PVs are semi- idiomatic, as their meaning depends on the meaning of the verb, such as Ali drank (up) his coffee. In these cases, the particle functions to emphasize the action, such as the verbs to play on or to fill up.
However, essentially, all terms refer to three main categories. In this study, the terms literal, semi-transparent, and figurative PVs will be used, and the justification will be provided in Chapter II.
Verb-particle combinations are widely used by English native speakers, particularly in colloquial speech. English language learners face numerous difficulties in mastering them. Native and non-native English language teachers and teachers in English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign…

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