China's One Child Policy

1346 Words 6 Pages
China, a demographical study
INTRODUCTION
The one child policy in China has had a massive effect on a huge amount of people since its introduction by authorities, and then leader Deng Xiaoping, in 1979 until it was officially phased out in 2015. It was made to be a short term measure which looked to create a culture of small families.
Following the Cultural Revolution in China from 1966 to 1976, China’s economy stagnated. During that time, China housed a quarter of the world’s population with two thirds of the population being under the age of thirty years known as The generation of baby boomers, which followed the Second World War, were starting to reproduce. The government looked to contain the population in order to create an environment
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Firstly I will explain why the policy was implemented and how officials looked to police it. Then I will explain what the consequences are, with reference to population growth, the skewed sex ratio and the ageing population. Lastly I will examine the future of China and what exactly the government will do in order to keep their country stable.

HOW THE POLICY WORKED
The latter policy’s targets and directions were put in place by the State Family Planning Bureau. Committees at provincial and national level devised local strategies for implementation. However the One Child Policy only applied to about forty per cent, although in urban areas the policy was harshly enforced, with minimal exceptions. These encompassed families with which the first child was born with health defects or disabilities or if both families worked dangerous jobs. Another interesting exception would if both parents were single children. (Hesketh and Xing, 2005)

However in rural areas, about seventy per cent of the population, a second child allowed after five years; yet this would sometimes apply if the first child is a girl. Lastly ethnic minorities were allowed a third child in under populated areas. (Hesketh amd Xing,
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This implicates China in the fact that it is unable to have sustainable development in the urban sector. The policy is full of loopholes, with 40% of the population allowed to have more than one child, often rural. (Beech, 2013) These elderly will need to be cared for, often by the young. In fact there is a trend which illuminates the problem which the Chinese will face, it is called the “4-2-1” - one child responsible for their parents and all for grandparents. A single child that cares for six adults is problematic, as they are unable to rely on their siblings.
Although there are negatives to the policy, defenders of the policy have stated that there are positives to be viewed as well. Tightening of birth laws has had a dramatic effect on the standard of living, per capita has increased from $200 in 1980 to $6000 in 2012. Pulling hundreds of millions of people out of poverty. The idea was that the less people there are, the less pressure on the economy there is. Officials report that the policy has prevented over 400 million births, although third party experts have stated that 100 million births is a more realistic number. (Beech,

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