Biological Factors That Cause Cancer

Superior Essays
Cancer
Cancer, is the leading cause of mortality in the world with approximately 14 million new cases reported each year and 8.2 million cancer related deaths according to the report by the World Health Organizations (2014). This paper is aimed at highlighting the case for Cancer by defining it, detailing the causes, symptoms, and the testing process, diagnosis, treatment and prevention methods.
Cancer is a term referring to a variety of diseases that are characterized by the rapid and uncontrollable division of abnormal cells and may occur in any part of the body. This abnormal replication leads to the growth of malignant tumors formed by the extra tissue cells. It should however be noted that some cancers like Leukemia do not form tumors.
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Most types of cancers come with age because cancer causing cells become more potent and cancerous as we progress over time. According to medical experts the older one gets the more the likely hood of “genetic mistakes” happening to cells. An example of such cancers that occur in old age is Prostate cancer which accounts for most of cancer cases diagnosed in men aged 50 years and above while it is very low in their younger counterparts. According to Crawford (2003), Prostate cancer is the second most leading malignancy in the Western Countries. The family genetics can also cause cancer as some individuals are genetically predisposed to inherit certain genetic cancer causing mutations that have a likelihood to be cancerous later on in life. It should however be noted that just because one is born with cancer causing genetic mutations, it does not necessarily mean they will definitely have cancer. An example of these are the BRCA1 and BRCA2 which are breast cancer gene mutations that increase the chance of a woman with such genes to develop breast cancer unlike one without these genes. Poor immune systems also makes one more susceptible to certain types of cancers. People who suffer from HIV/AIDS, those that take drugs after organ transplants and those living with immune suppressing syndromes are more likely to be affected by cancers caused by viruses …show more content…
For example pancreatic cancer symptoms are not evident until they start to push on nerves causing sharp pains to the individual or affect the liver thus causing jaundice. Some cancer symptoms may appear the same as symptoms of other diseases. For example colon cancers’ symptoms may include diarrhea and constipation which could easily be translated as food poisoning. Some cancers symptoms manifest by affecting functions of other organs. Bladder cancer causes frequent urination. As cancer cells progress they also cause fatigue, fevers, sweating or weight loss as they use up energy in an individual. In case of brain cancer patients may get recurring headaches, vertigo or in extreme cases seizure attacks. One should note that the symptoms ultimately depend on the type of cancer one is suffering from and the speed at which it is spreading.
Medical Practitioner can diagnose cancer through observation of symptoms as they manifest or by use of biopsy of the cancerous cells. Use of technological machines such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, Ultra sounds, endoscopy camera or the PET scans allows the doctors locate malignant tumors in the body. Molecular testing of blood sugars, fats and proteins in the body also aids doctors identify

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