The Factors That Influence Enzymes

Introduction
Enzymes are specialized proteins present in all living organisms, whether animals, plants or microorganisms (Reece et al., 2012) .In addition, life would cease to exist without these vital organic molecules, as they are needed for metabolic processes, and other reactions and processes in the body (Reece et al., 2012). Sometimes some RNA molecules can act as enzymes (Reece et al., 2012). Enzymes as well as their substrates work best at optimal levels, and are affected by temperature and pH environments (Reece et al., 2012). Other factors that influence enzymes include substrate and enzyme concentration, competitive & non-competitive inhibitors and, allosteric sites (Reece et al., 2012).
Enzymes are reusable biological molecules
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In this experiment, alpha- amylase is the enzyme which reacts with a substrate molecule of starch to produce a simpler sugar molecule of maltose (Biology Department, 2012). A greater absorbance reading is an indication that more products are released from the polysaccharide (Biology Department, 2012). It is hypothesized that enzymes and substrates function most effectively when subjected to moderate levels of temperature and pH. Likewise, when substrate or enzyme concentration is increased, a greater yield of products is the …show more content…
Test tube 1 was set up to be the blank tube, and therefore had an absorbance value of zero, no matter what it contained of DNSA and distilled water (Biology Department, 2012). Next was test tube 2, which was diluted with less amount of distilled water than test tube 1, and had no enzymes. The spectrophotometer read a value of 0.02 as the substrate molecule; starch did not bind to alpha-amylase, because of the enzyme’s absence from the solution (Reece et al., 2012). Test tube 3 showed a similar absorbance of 0.01, due to the absence of the substrate (Biology Department, 2012). In contrast to test tube 2, test tube 3 had a moderate amount of enzyme, but no substrate, so initially a substrate is not present to bind to the enzyme’s active site, and hence no products will be released (Reece et al., 2012). Test tube 4 ultimately alluded to an absorbance of 0.42, with equal quantities of reactants. This occurred as all starch molecules were converted to maltose molecules (Reece et al., 2012). Unlike other test tubes, tube 5 and 6 were not diluted with water, which increases the chances of a substrates binding to an enzyme’s active site and releases products at a faster rate (Reece et al., 2012). The enzyme to substrate ratio in test tube 5 was 1:2, and so the reading on the

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