# Analysis Of Three Bentonite Materials

1055 Words 5 Pages
Analysis
Three Bentonite properties, which makes it a unique buffer material for nuclear disposal applications are discussed in the following:

1) Thermal conductivity
Thermal conductivity is the rate at which heat can be transferred through a certain material. It is also expressed as the flux of heat, which flows per unit time through a unit distance with a temperature gradient of one degree per unit area. Thermal conductivity, like other tensor parameters, has different values in different directions. In SI units, thermal conductivity has the unit of watts per meter Kelvin (W/ (m*K)).
Each HLW (or spent fuel) disposal canister produces around 1000 to 2000 watts of heat during the decay processes. In order to reduce the heat related mineral
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A temperature difference is created because of heat flow transferring through the material and the heat flow meter itself. Bentonite pellets are compacted in an insulated frame which has the following dimension: length and width of 450 millimetres and height of 80 millimetres. The frame is in the machine for 48 hours. [16]
b) Thermal probe method
In this method a heat source is inserted into the Bentonite pellet and energy is applied continuously at a constant rate. A thermal sensor is used to determine the thermal conductivity of the Bentonite pellet by analysing the temperature gradient change adjacent to the heat source. The Bentonite pellets are prepared by hand compaction in a plastic cylinder with a radius of 75 millimetres and a height of 200 millimetres, and the thermal probe is 160 millimetres long.The duration of the test is 30 minutes. [16]
b) Hot disk
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Changes in the temperature coefficient of resistivity correlate with corresponding temperatures. The heating time is related to the size of the sample, because the lateral boundaries will affect the specimen. In order to measure stable values of thermal conductivity, the sample size must be considered during the period which heating is

• ## Specific Heat Experiment

To this end, the unit for specific heat capacity is Jkg-1K-1. APPARATUS USED FOR THE EXPERIMENT. 1 x 12V immersion heater. 1 x 500mL beaker 2 x 1kg block of metal with two holes. 1 x Thermometer -10 to 110℃ 1 x 12V power supply…

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• ## Camphene Synthesis

For the first synthesis reaction, camphene was converted to isobornyl acetate. In the fume hood, a sample of 1.36 g of camphene was added to a 25-mL round-bottomed flask along with a stir bar. To dissolve the camphene, 3.0 mL of glacial acetic acid was added into the flask. The flask was fastened onto a ring stand and immersed in a water bath that was on top of a stir plate. A thermometer wire was placed in the water bath to monitor the temperature throughout the experiment.…

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• ## Lab Experiment: Lab Analysis Of Tiv Photocatalysts

TiV photocatalyst was prepared by sol–gel method using tetra-n-butyl titanate as the precursor. Solution A was prepared by dissolving 17 mL TBT in 30 mL anhydrous ethanol with stirring (300 rpm) for 30 min. The other solution that contained 28.35 mL anhydrous ethanol, 7.25 mL deionized water and 20 mL 3 M acetic acid was slowly added into the above solution with magnetic stirring at room temperature. The prepared mixture was further hydrolyzed for 60 min with stirring until the transparent sol was obtained, which was aged for 20 h at room temperature. Thus prepared TiO2 was dried at 80 °C in an oven for 12 h and calcined for 3 h at three different temperatures: 400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C.…

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• ## Chemical Reactions Lab

The 15 mL of 6 M(HCl) was put into the Erlenmeyer flask. Then an airtight stopper was put on the Erlenmeyer Flask. Then a thermometer and a pressure gauge were connected to the Erlenmeyer Flask. Finally, 0.25 g of Zn was added to the Erlenmeyer Flask and the reactions were observed and recorded. Once the temperature cooled down to about room temperature the thermometer and pressure gauge were taken out.…

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• ## Latent Heat Of Nitrogen Lab Report

Determining the Latent Heat of Vaporisation of Nitrogen Abstract The aim of this experiment was to determine the latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen. To do this, a resistor connected to a power supply was used to heat up liquid nitrogen. Measuring the current and resistance in the circuit gave the power supplied to the liquid nitrogen and measuring how long it took for a fixed amount of nitrogen gas to be produced gave the rate of evolution of nitrogen gas. Plotting the power against the rate of evolution and determining the gradient yielded the value of 188 ± 22 kJkg¯¹ for the latent heat of vaporisation of nitrogen. This is within the accepted value of 199 kJkg¯¹ [1] but the uncertainty is very large which could have been minimised…

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• ## Polymers Lab Report Essay

Stopwatch used to record the time to heat the specimen. High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) specimen, as shown in Figure 7. Figure 11: Davenport melt flow rate apparatus. Procedure: Small amount of granular HIPS sample was weighed using electronic balance. The steel barrel was reheated to 230 C. the stopwatch was set up for 1 minute and the barrel was loaded with a small amount of the test sample and tapped down with the charging tool.…

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• ## Limiting Reactants Lab Report

A graph of the volume of hydrogen gas produced versus moles of a reagent that is varied will be able to tell you the point in which the stoichiometric balance is achieved and what the limiting reactant is. In this experiment group A used a constant mass of magnesium metal (0.100 g) and varying volumes of 2.00 M hydrochloric acid added from 2.00 mL to 7.00 mL in progressions of 1.00 mL which in total came out to be six distinctive chemical reactions. Group B used the consistent volume of 2.00 M hydrochloric acid (5.00 mL) and changed the mass of the magnesium metal used from 0.070 g to 0.170 g in growths of 0.020 g which resulted in a total of six different chemical reactions as well. The percent yield for magnesium, according to the data, was 107.3% and the percent yield for hydrochloric acid, according to the data, was 96.0%. Overall, the experiment was fairly successful as observed by the percent yields of both…

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• ## Urea Synthesis Lab Report

Excess liquid ammonia is pumped through a high pressure plunger pump and CO2 is compressed at the compressor and passes up to the urea reactor. The feed mole ratio NH3:CO2 is 2:1 or 3:1. The reactor operates at temperature range of 175-190oC and pressure of 200 atm. The reactor effluent pressure is let down to almost 2 atm. Ammonium carbamate is then decomposed and stripped form the urea solution in a steam heated shell and a tube heat exchanger.…

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• ## Enthalpy Lab Report

The change of temperature is found by comparing the change in temperature of the system to the temperature of the surroundings. For a calorimeter, a Styrofoam cup place in a beaker is used. The Styrofoam of the cup minimizes heat loss and the beaker keeps the cup in a stable position. Hot and cold water were mixed in the calorimeter to calibrate it and determine its heat capacity, which comes into play in the three reactions tested.…

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• ## Ideal Gas Law Experiment

There are several gas laws exhibited in this experiment. Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures allows us to determine the pressure of the gas by subtracting the water vapor pressure from the total pressure of the flask. The total pressure would be the barometric pressure for the day and the water vapor pressure would vary with the temperature. The ideal gas law (PV = nRT) is also used to calculate the molecular mass…

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