Bandura’s Social-Cognitive Theory The social-cognitive theory proposed by Albert Bandura (1925- ) has become the most influential theory of learning and development. It considers that people learn from one another, including such concepts as observational learning, imitation, and modeling. This theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. The four-step pattern of observational learning consists of: (1) Attention, must be aware of the model; (2) Retention, ability of storing information which can be pulled up later and acted on; (3) Reproduction, must replicate the modeled behavior at some time; and (4) Motivation, must have some desire to
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Also, instruction should be designed to help students develop self-efficacy for learning. Most simply, the tasks should be less challenging so that students’ are able to perform and make progress. According to social-cognitive theory, all students should be supported in becoming self-regulated learners. Students should set task-specific goals which will help them invent strategies that help with achieving objectives. After implementing strategies, they monitor and adjust their progress, and finally, they use motivational strategies to keep them on task when they become frustrated or encounter difficulties. Self-regulated learners must be flexible and not do tasks all at once.
Clinical Aspects Dysfunctional behavior “fits the social-cognitive theory of Bandura because the reciprocal determinism of environment, cognition, and behavior create maladaptive behavior, just as they can produce psychologically well-adjusted behavior” (Bandura, 2011). Bandura’s social-cognitive theory was developed while studying methods to eliminate or eradicate phobias in patients. A phobia is an irrational fear to an object. The individual knows that this fear is irrational, but that does not decrease the negative affect associated with the phobic object or situation. Phobia’s can be chronic if never faced. The nature of the phobia causes the person to avoid any