Bacterial Evasion Mechanisms For Innate Immunity And The Consequences Of The Adaptive Immune Response

1075 Words Nov 16th, 2014 null Page
Humans and bacteria have a unique relationship, which has both positive and negative outcomes on human beings. In fact, the human body’s surfaces are inhabited by numerous bacteria, known as normal flora (Hornef et al., 2002). These normal flora may act as commensals or be mutualistic, which means that they are either harmless or beneficial microorganisms (Cogen et al., 2008). However, serious invasive diseases, such as meningitis and septicemia are caused by several pathogenic bacteria (Hornef et al., 2002). The occurrence of such diseases requires unique strategies, which assist bacteria to survive inside the host and evade their immune response (Akira et al., 2006). Several pathogenic bacteria have developed efficient capabilities to counteract and circumvent innate immune defenses, as well as adaptive immune defenses (Hornef et al., 2002). This paper will discuss several bacterial evasion mechanisms for innate immunity and the consequences of these for the adaptive immune response, as well as some evasion strategies to overcome adaptive immunity.

The first part of this essay will discuss some pathogens evasion strategies to overcome the first line defenses of innate immunity. It includes Mucus membrane, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), macrophages and antigen presenting cells (APCs). A good example of primary innate immune defense is the mucus membrane, which eliminates bacterial adhesion by ciliary movement or mucus in the upper respiratory tract (Fedtke et al.,…

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