Asdada Essay

4027 Words Mar 22nd, 2014 17 Pages
Aggregate Demand This section gives you a platform for understanding issues such as inflation, economic growth and unemployment. Aggregate demand (AD) and aggregate supply (AS) analysis provides a way of illustrating macroeconomic relationships and the effects of government policy changes.
Aggregate Demand
The identity for calculating aggregate demand (AD) is as follows:
AD = C + I + G + (X-M)
Where
C: Consumers' expenditure on goods and services: This includes demand for consumer durables (e.g. washing machines, audio-visual equipment and motor vehicles & non-durable goods such as food and drinks which are “consumed” and must be re-purchased). Household spending accounts for over sixty five per cent of aggregate demand in
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In a normal year, government purchases of goods and services accounts for around twenty per cent of aggregate demand. We will return to this again when we look at how the government runs its fiscal policy.
Transfer payments in the form of welfare benefits (e.g. state pensions and the job-seekers allowance) are not included in general government spending because they are not a payment to a factor of production for any output produced. They are simply a transfer from one group within the economy (i.e. people in work paying income taxes) to another group (i.e. pensioners drawing their state pension having retired from the labour force, or families on low incomes).
The next two components of aggregate demand relate to international trade in goods and services between the UK economy and the rest of the world.
X: Exports of goods and services - Exports sold overseas are an inflow of demand (an injection) into our circular flow of income and therefore add to the demand for UK produced output.
M: Imports of goods and services. Imports are a withdrawal of demand (a leakage) from the circular flow of income and spending. Goods and services come into the economy for us to consume and enjoy - but there is a flow of money out of the economy to pay for them.
Net exports (X-M) reflect the net effect of international trade on the level of aggregate demand. When net exports are positive, there is a trade surplus (adding to

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