Importance Of Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing For Antimicrobial Resistance

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Introduction:

Antibiotic sensitivity testing is used in clinical laboratories to predict the effectiveness or failure of antibiotics in vivo by testing in vitro. The need for antibiotic sensitivity testing is urgent due to the surge of antimicrobial resistant pathogens in recent years. Antimicrobial resistance hinders the prevention and treatment of the infections caused by parasites, bacteria, fungi and viruses. Antimicrobial resistance is the resistance of a pathogen to an antimicrobial that was used to treat any infections caused by that particular pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem. Antibiotic resistance hampers the effectiveness of treatments, so people remain infected for much longer therefore increasing the risk
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The antibiotic resistance traits displayed by resistant pathogens are not naturally eradicated so in some cases a resistance to various antibiotics can be acquired over time. This resistance to multiple antibiotics results in multiple drug resistant pathogens such as multiple drug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Multiple drug resistant pathogens are much more challenging to subdue so further testing and research is needed to identify or to create antibiotics that can kill multiple drug resistant pathogens.

There are many antibiotic sensitivity testing methods used in clinical laboratories today. Each of these testing methods has their own advantages and limitations.
All antibiotic sensitivity testing systems have the same intention. The intention is to predict the effectiveness of antibiotics to see if they can be used therapeutically to treat infections caused by pathogens. The data provided from antibiotic sensitivity testing systems can also be applied as a guideline for chemotherapy, so the testing can result in the identification of drugs that are selectively toxic so using these drugs wont bring more harm to the patient.
Antibiotic testing is divided into automated methods, manual methods, mechanism specific tests and genotypic
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The automated testing systems are used to reduce technical errors and preparation times. Some examples of automated testing systems are; the Vitek system Biomerieux, the Sensititre ARIS system, the Walk-Away system and the Avantage test system. These automated testing systems provide automated inoculation of cards and interpretation and reading. These systems are quick and convenient and can provide results within hours. The limitation of automated systems is the cost involved in the purchase of the machine and the maintenance of the

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