Annotated Bibliography On The Genome Editing Essay examples
It 's is where genes are cut, deleted or inserted in the DNA which in turn changed the sequence of DNA of an organism or cell
Various engineered nucleases can be used to carry out the genome editing, this include TALENs (Transcription activator interspaced nuclease), ZFNs (Zinc-finger nuclease) and CRISPR-Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeat), viruses can be used to edit genes it is known as rAAV (recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus).
Primarily, research was carried out in 1990s on mouse embryonic stem cells, mainly using ZFN and TALEN.
CRISPR-Cas9 found in 2013 by (name) consists of an enzyme (Cas9) and gRNA (guide RNA/CRISPR) it is found in archaea and bacteria and is known as 'molecular scissors’ that cut at specific DNA region, when gRNA binds to complementary DNA and guides the cas9 to cut the genome at the right place.
ZFN are DNA-binding proteins that bind to the DNA sequence inducing a DSB, it comprises of DNA-cleaving domain that is FOK1 endonuclease, a restriction enzyme.
TALEN consists of DNA binding terminals, c-Terminal an N-terminal and is derived from xanthomonas a bacterial plant pathogen.
Using rAAV vectors in gene targeting increases in efficiency and works without DSB.
Key advantage of ZFN and TALEN they are not limited to mutagenesis whereas CRISPR has gRNA is readlily designed and very…