Angola Case Study
Scenario Study 1 (2016)
Assignment 1 Name: Claire Mak
Class: Sec 4 / 08 Analyse the causes of conflict in Angola.
Background of the Civil War in Angola
The Angola civil war that began in 1975 has its roots in the fight for independence from Portugal starting in 1961. During the struggle for independence, three main insurgent groups were formed. They are People’s Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). After independence, FNLA played little role, and the subsequent civil war was primarily driven by the sharp ideological differences between the two groups – MPLA and UNITA. The Angola civil …show more content…
These external causes amplified the civil war in 3 ways: (1) Support provided to UNITA by the United States provided the confidence and financial resources for the group to continue it resistance against the MPLA government (2) Support of the two superpowers allowed the two warring groups access to arms and ammunition (3) Differences between the US and Soviet Union limited the UN Security Council’s ability to reduce the conflict. US and Russia have veto powers in the UN Security Council and no resolution can be effected when the two are not in agreement. It was only in 1989, fourteen years after the outbreak of civil war, that the Security Council agreed to establish the UN verification in Angola (UNAVEM). It appears that during the cold war, the two superpowers were more interested in advancing their influence and power than committed to peace, security or development of …show more content…
POOR GOVERNMENT AND LACK OF DEMOCRACY
During Angola’s civil war, government institutions were far too weak to produce and implement effective policies and laws. Under such conditions, human rights are systematically violated and corruption and nepotism are very rampant leading to a chaotic and unstable country.
From the onset, MPLA government rejected democracy by establishing a one party system at independence. Angola started off without a democratic foundation. There was no equality between the people of Angola.
There was rampant corruption during the civil war and the wealth of the country rested in the hands of a selected few. Both MPLA government and rebels UNITA committed widespread and systematic human rights violations through the military and national police, squandering huge amounts of the state’s wealth.
With the constant infighting among the MPLA, UNITA and FNLA before, during and after independence, the Angola economy was in shambles in 1975. The fighting and exodus of almost all the white settlers had left the country largely without skilled manpower and economy in