Analyzing The Narrative Analysis Of Oliver 's Performance Was Below Age Expectations On Terms Of His Surface Structure, Cohesion
Besides having good grammar, the narrative analysis revealed several indications that Oliver’s performance was below age-expectations in terms of his surface structure, cohesion and overall organization. Firstly, his surface structure was not age appropriate and lacking in certain aspects. Children age 4 or 5 generally achieve complexity in more than 20% of their utterances (Paul, 1981). With 26% of his narrative being complex sentences, it indicated that his level of sentence complexity was about 4 years below chronological age expectations, which also reduced his ability to express complex thoughts and ideas (Vasilyeva, Waterfall, & Huttenlocher, 2008). Hence, his story was significantly shorter than expected for his age. His retell also had 6 disruptions due to several instances of word finding difficulties, which could imply a possibility of an expressive language disorder (Guo, Tomblin, & Samelson, 2008).
Next, Oliver’s overall narrative cohesion was not age appropriate with only 62.5% complete ties despite being in his third year of formal education. Children should present with less than 15% incomplete ties by the first formal education (Beliavsky, 2003). Hence, this difference in cohesion abilities as compared to the age-expected level was indicative of a language disorder (Liles, 1985). School-aged children could be considered to have difficulty generating a cohesive text if they produce less than 70% complete cohesive…