Analysis: Cultures Of The Mountains And The Sea

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Chapter 5.1- Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea
Geography Shapes Greek Life: The seas, land, and climates in ancient Greece shaped the lives of its citizens. Seas allowed for easy transportation and a better trading system. On land, the mountains covering Greece divided the country into smaller, independent communities. Because the land had little fertile farmland and fresh water, Greece couldn’t support a large population. The varied climate and moderate temperature in Greece also promoted outdoor life.
Mycenaean Civilization Develops: The Mycenaeans were a thriving civilization in Greece. Their contact with the Minoans in 15000 B.C. caused them to value trade overseas along with other influences such as writing systems, religion art, politics,
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They built a strong civilization and produced warrior-kings who came to rule areas around Mycenaean cities from about 1600 to 1100 B.C.
• Trojan War: A war fought between Mycenaeans and Troy, a trading city in Anatolia. According to the legend, the war was caused by a Trojan prince who kidnapped the wife of the Greek king, Helen.
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians: After the fall of the Mycenaean civilization around 1200 B.C., another group, Dorians, moved in. As they were less advanced, the economy fell and writing ceased, making way for storytelling by spoken language. One of the greatest storytellers was a blind name named Homer. He and other storytellers developed myth. These myths fabricated human qualities into their gods and heroes.
• Dorians: a group of people that moved further into Greece after the downfall of the Mycenaean civilization. They are believed to be distantly related to Bronze Age Greeks.
• Homer: blind name storyteller from the Dorian Age who was thought to have composed his epics from 750 to 070 B.C. A famous epic poem of his is the
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The Persian War began around 546 B.C. when Persia conquered the land in Ionia. Ionians revolted and lost. Around 490 B.C., the Athens won against the Persian in Marathon by using the phalanx. Pheidippides, a younger runner, ran back to Athen to tell of their victory against the Persians so that they can be on defense. In 480 B.C., the new Persian king (Darius the Great’s son) Xerxes attempted to destroy Athens. The country was divided and some city-states even fought alongside the Persians. Xerxes army used a secret path around a mountain pass to get closer to Athens. Sparta sacrificed all their soldiers to defend the pass. Themistocles created a plan to defend Athens. The navy was set up near Salamis to ambush Xerxes. It works. In 479 B.C., Persia lost again at the Battle of the Plateau. The Delian League was eventually formed and it worked to prevent future attacks from Persia. After the Persia War, the Greek city-states felt more confident. Athens became the Delian League leader and used its power to control the other members. After this, Athens entered its Golden

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